Western Michigan University TFXC Camps are held at the Kanley Track Complex on the Western Michigan University campus in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Western Michigan University TFXC Camps are led by the Western Michigan Broncos Track & Field / Cross Country coaching staffs.
Western Michigan University TFXC Camps are held at the Kanley Track Complex on the Western Michigan University campus in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Western Michigan University TFXC Camps are led by the Western Michigan Broncos Track & Field / Cross Country coaching staffs.
Western Michigan University Soccer Camps are held at the Seelye Indoor Center and the Waldo Stadium on the Western Michigan University campus in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Western Michigan University Soccer Camps are led by the Western Michigan Broncos Men''s & Women''s Soccer coaching staffs.
Western Michigan University Gymnastics Camps are held on the campus on Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Western Michigan University Gymnastics Camps are led by the Broncos Gymnastics coaching staff.
Northern Michigan University | Northern Michigan University
Northern Michigan University, located in Marquette, Michigan, is a dynamic four-year, public, comprehensive university that has grown its reputation based on its award-winning leadership programs, cutting-edge technology initiatives and nationally recognized academic programs.
National University Archive - Bangladeshi All Educational Information (Colleges, Universities, Educationa Boards and other Education Institutes) - National University Archive | জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় আর্কাইভ
National University || Bangladesh - জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়
National University Bangladesh | জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়: Recent NU Notice, NU Result, Admission all information find here - www.nu.edu.bd (nu edu bd result). National University Gazipur all Courses/Program are Bachelor (Honours, Degree Program and Masters) information from www.nu.edu.bd/results.
IQRA National University, Peshawar (INU) is a institution imparting high-quality higher education at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. IQRA NATIONAL UNIVERITY Offers Bachelors, Masters and Ph.D in Engineering, Medical Sciences, Management Sciences, information Technology, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences.
Jakarta Intercultural School (JIS) has set the standard for international schooling in Indonesia and throughout the world by providing services of the highest quality to our students and community for more than fifty (50) years. Founded specifically as an international school to meet the needs and interests of expatriate students living in Jakarta, JIS is a large, well-equipped school for students aged three through eighteen years, set on three beautiful campuses; Cilandak - Pondok Indah and Pattimura. JIS students enjoy first class academic programs and a comprehensive array of sporting - cultural and performing arts activities enabling them to explore interests and develop talents; preparing for future opportunities anywhere in the global community. The curriculum draws heavily from current research and best practice and inspires our students to develop transferable skills and enduring understandings that enable their success in university programs and national curricula the world over.,
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Oakland Soccer Camps | at Oakland University | Rochester, MI
Oakland Soccer Camps are held at the Oakland Soccer Field and Oakland University Athletic Dome on the Oakland University campus in Rochester, Michigan. Oakland Soccer Camps are led by the Oakland Golden Grizzlies Men''s Soccer coaching staff.
Charlotte Boye-Christensen has a complete commitment to the invention of unique forms that inspire and push the perception of what dance can be. "By continually pushing boundaries I strive to both invite and invigorate reflection on contemporary dance. I pursue collaborations with artists and professionals from different disciplines and am developing a collective of designers, architects, visual artists, writers and composers to contribute to the evolution of our work." Charlotte Boye-Christensen, a native of Copenhagen, Denmark, lived a number of her childhood years in the Middle East, as well as in the Netherlands. These early experiences combined with time spent in Brunei and Australia in her adolescence contributed to her cultural and aesthetic curiosity. This curiosity has been a guiding force in her development as an artist. She received her formal training at London Contemporary Dance School and at the Laban Centre in London (where she won the 1992 choreography award) and completed her MFA Degree at Tisch School of the Arts, New York University. Charlotte has been commissioned to create new works for: Ballet West, The Milwaukee Ballet, Singapore Dance Theatre, The Arts Fissions Dance Company, Ballet de Camaguey in Cuba, New Danish Dance Theatre, Tisch School of the Arts'' Second Avenue Dance Company in NYC, London Contemporary Dance School''s Edge Dance Company, Compañía Danza Contemporánea Ccu and Verb Ballets in Cleveland. In 2002 she joined Ririe-Woodbury Dance Company, located in Salt Lake City, Utah to assist in the artistic direction of the company. She became the Artistic Director in 2008 and has created 24 new works on the company. As a soloist, she has performed at the International Choreographic platform in Almada, Portugal, at the Marato de l''espectacle in Barcelona, Spain, at the Metropolitan Museum of photography in Tokyo, Japan, at Lasalle-Sia, College of the Arts, Singapore, at the Bellas Artes International Choreography Competition in Mexico City and more. She has choreographed at the Universities of Texas-Austin, Sam Houston, Princeton, Rutgers, Utah, Southern Mississippi, at Southern Utah University, at The National School for Contemporary Dance in Denmark, The Kuopio and Oulu Conservatories in Finland, Arnheim Academy and EDDC in the Netherlands, The Royal Danish Ballet School, University of the Americas in Mexico, and at the Bellas Artes International Choreography Competition in Mexico City. Charlotte has been invited to participate in "The Yard" Dance Colony in Massachusetts, The International Course for Professional Choreographers and Composers in England and to teach and choreograph at the International Dance Competition in Seoul. She has staged her work at the Kaleidoskop Theatre, at the New Opera house and "Den Nye Scene" in Copenhagen and at the Alliance Francaise in Singapore. She has worked with Utah Symphony on Stravinsky''s Soldier''s Tale and Renard, directed the stage workshop at the famed Bauhaus Institute in Germany and more. She is the recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship and grants from the Theatre and Arts Councils in Denmark, Germany, Mexico and Singapore amongst others, as well as a recipient of the Choo-San Goh Award for Choreographic Excellence.
Full-service custom cabinetry shop manufacturing high quality cabinetry for medical, commercial, educational, institutional, and residential clients and builders. Located in Wooster OH and serving Ohio, southern Michigan, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia panhandle. Shipping products throughout United States.
National Multicultural Western Heritage Museum and Hall of Fame - Dallas/Ft. Worth
The National Multicultural Western Heritage Hall of Fame was founded to give recognition to the outstanding pioneers who played a role in settling the early American western frontier. The National Multicultural Western Heritage Museum and Hall of Fame also acknowledges individuals that have contributed to the western culture and tradition and play a part in keeping this important piece of American History alive.
german nazi hitler luftwaffe kriegsmarine german medal medals ww1 ww2 militaria bundeswehr military medals badge badges insignia insignias stickpins stickpin day badge SA sturmabteilung NSDAP RAD DAF WHW winterhilfswerk HJ hitlerjugend hitler youth NSKOV NSRL DRL NSBO organisations documents ID personal gear field gear uniform accessories buckles buckle Iron Cross Eisernes Kreuz Eastern Front Medal Winterschlacht Im Osten War Merit Cross Kriegsverdienstkreuz German West Wall Medal Deutsches Schutzwall-Ehrenzeichen Wound Badge Verwundetenabzeichen Cross of Honour of the German Mother Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter militaria german militaria Sudetenland Commemorative Medal Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 1. Oktober 1938 Civil Service Faithful Service Medal Treudienst-Ehrenzeichen für Beamte Angestellte und Arbeiter Driver''s Proficiency Badge Kraftfahr-Bewährungsabzeichen Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Reichsarbeitsdienst National Sozialistische Kriegsopferversorung Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Deutsches Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Deutsche Arbeitsfront NS-Reichskriegerbund ''Kyffhäuser'' Kyffhäuserbund Orpo Ordnungspolizei Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellen-organisation third reich Wehrpass Arbeitsbuch bequest veteran warrior league wehrmacht merkbuch German certificate of metal donation 1940 Metallspende des Deutsches Volkes German driving license Führerschein 1957 pattern German Civil Defense gas mask kit DLV Deutscher Luftsport-Verband German Cross Deutsches Kreuz Luftwaffe Pilot Badge Pilotenabzeichen HJ Lantern lampion Veterans'' bequests Medals miniatures ribbons ribbon bars coin coins plaque plaques photographs photograph field posts field post deadcard deadcards war newspapers war newspaper books book booklets booklet soldier figures soldier figure elastolin lineol flame thrower durolin der landser helmet artillery corps corp reichswehr bundesmarine heer bismarck klemm German Honorary World War Commemorative Medal for legion German War League Constitution WW1 Braunschweig Reich Federation of German Civil Servants ID German Insurance Card Quittungskarte WW1 WW2 German ID Denazifying Clearence Certificate denazified lutheran certificate of origin 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Interzonal Pass Russian Zone Landwehr Division POW papers WW1 sword axe panzer panzer grenadier cap badge COMBAT ENGINEER LIGHT INFANTRY Gebrigsjager Gebirgsjäger mp military police marine corps SUPPLY & TRANSPORTATION MAINTENANCE SIGNAL CORPS funker TOPOGRAPHER AIR CORPS PARATROOPER PANZER RECONNAISANCE anti aircraft flak gun MUSIC CORPS GUARD BATTALION PSYCHICAL WARFARE MEDIC CORPS WMD DEFENSE GERMAN-FRANCE BATTALION navy army u-boat TANK DESTROYER LONG RANGE RECONNAISANCE Military Proficiency Badge BRONZE Bundeswehr shooting lanyard bronze silver gold Shoulder Strap PAIR collar tab collar tabs shoulder board schulterklappe beret armband cuff title cufftitle battleship e-boat schnellboot u-boot blazoon shield soldier traffic sign glass pendant red cross enameled enamelled Baden-Würtemberg Stuttgart Bayern München Berlin Berlin Brandenburg Potsdam Bremen Bremen Hamburg Hamburg Hessen Wiesbaden Niedersachsen Hannover Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin Nordrhein-Westfalen düsseldorf Rheinland-Pfalz Mainz Saarland Saarbrücken Sachsen Dresden Sachsen-Anhalt Magdeburg Schleswig-Holstein Kiel Thüringen Erfurt Kingdom of Prussia Pour le Mérite (Orden "Pour le Mérite") Order of the Black Eagle (Schwarzer-Adler-Orden) Order of the Red Eagle (Roter-Adler-Orden) Order of the Crown (Kronen-Orden) Royal House Order of Hohenzollern (Königlicher Hausorden von Hohenzollern) Iron Cross (Eisernes Kreuz) Military Merit Cross (Militärverdienstkreuz) Military Decoration 1st Class (Militär-Ehrenzeichen I. Klasse) and Military Decoration 2nd Class (Militär-Ehrenzeichen II. Klasse) Warrior Merit Medal (Krieger-Verdienstmedaille) Ölberg Cross (Ölberg-Kreuz) Kingdom of Bavaria Military Order of Max Joseph (Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden) Military Merit Order (Militär-Verdienstorden) and its associated Military Merit Cross (Militär-Verdienstkreuz) Golden Military Merit Medal (Goldene Militär-Verdienst Medaille) and Silver Military Merit Medal (Silberne Militär-Verdienst Medaille) Kingdom of Hanover Royal Guelphic Order Order of Ernst August Kingdom of Saxony Military Order of St. Henry Merit Order (also called the Civil Merit Order) Albert Order Friedrich August Medal War Merit Cross kingdom of Württemberg Order of the Württemberg Crown Order of Military Merit Order of Friedrich Golden Military Merit Medal Silver Military Merit Medal Wilhelm Cross Grand Duchy of Baden Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order and the Merit Medal of the Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order (Karl-Friedrich Military Merit Medal) Order of the Zähringen Lion Merit Medal on the ribbon of the Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order. War Merit Cross Grand Duchy of Hesse Ludewigsorden Order of Philip the Magnanimous General Honor Decoration for Bravery or for War Merit Warrior Honor Decoration in Iron Military Medical Cross, 1870/71 and 1914 Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Order of the Griffin Military Merit Cross Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Order of the Griffin Cross for Distinction in War Duchy of Nassau Merit Order of Adolph of Nassau Grand Duchy of Oldenburg House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis Friedrich August Cross Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach House Order of Vigilance or the White Falcon Wilhelm Ernst War Cross General Honor Decoration with Swords Clasp Duchy of Anhalt Order of Albert the Bear Friedrich Cross Duchy of Brunswick House Order of Henry the Lion War Merit Cross Duchies of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen Ducal Saxe-Ernestine House Order Duke Ernst Medal (Saxe-Altenburg) Duke Carl Eduard Medal (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) Carl Eduard War Cross (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) Honor Cross for Merit in War and Honor Medal for Merit in War (Saxe-Meiningen) Principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen Princely House Order of Hohenzollern Principality of Lippe-Detmold House Order of the Honor Cross War Honor Cross for Heroic Deeds War Merit Cross Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe House Order of the Honor Cross Cross for Loyal Service Principalities of Reuss, Elder Line and Younger Line Princely Reuss Honor Cross War Merit Cross "1914" Principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Princely Schwarzburg Honor Cross Silver Medal for Merit in War Principality of Waldeck Merit Cross Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck Hanseatic Cross Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Golden Oakleaves Swords, and Diamonds Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves, Swords, and Diamonds Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves and Swords Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with oakleaves Knights Cross of the Iron Cross German Cross (Awarded in Gold and Silver) Iron Cross First Class Iron Cross Second Class 1939 Clasp to the Iron Cross Military Honor Roll Clasp (Awarded for Army, Navy, and Air Force) Golden Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross (Awarded with and without Swords) Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross (Awarded with and without Swords) War Merit Cross (First and Second Class) (Awarded with and without Swords) War Merit Medal Spanish Cross in Gold, Silver, and Bronze Awarded with and without Swords Special grade awarded in Gold with Diamonds Posthumous grade known as "Spanish Cross for Next of Kin of Fallen" Cross of Honor (1914-1918) Eastern Front Medal West Wall Medal Upgradeable to include 1944 Bar Anschluss Medal Memel Medal Sudetenland Medal Upgradeable to include Prague Castle Bar Wehrmacht Long Service Award Awarded for Army, Navy, and Air Force Awarded in grades of 4, 12, 18, 25, and 40 Years of Service Waffen-SS Long Service Award Awarded in grades of 4, 12, 18, and 25 Years of Service 1939 Wound Badge (Awarded in Gold, Silver, and Black) Wound Badge of 20 July 1944 Narvik Shield Crimea Shield Demyansk Shield Kuban Shield Infantry Assault Badge (Silver and Bronze) General Assault Badge Close Combat Clasp (Gold, Silver, and Bronze) Tank Battle Badge (Silver and Bronze) Tank Destruction Badge (Gold and Silver) Anti-Partisan Guerrilla Warfare Badge Balloon Observer''s Badge Sniper''s Badge Army Paratrooper Badge Front Line Driver''s Badge (Gold, Silver, and Bronze) Army Anti-Aircraft Badge Condor Legion Tank Badge Commemorative Tank Badge of the Great War High Seas Fleet Badge Destroyer War Badge Minesweeper War Badge Blockade Runner Badge E-Boat War Badge U-Boat War Badge Auxiliary Cruiser Badge Naval Artillery War Badge U-Boat Combat Clasp (Gold and Silver) Combined Pilots-Observation Badge Pilot''s Badge Luftwaffe Paratrooper Badge Anti-Aircraft Flak Battle Badge Aircrew Badge Observer Badge Glider Pilot Badge Radio Operator Badge Air Gunner Badge Luftwaffe Ground Assault Badge Retired Aircrew Badge Luftwaffe Flying Clasps Day Fighters Night Fighters Long Range Day Fighters Air to Ground Support Fighters Bombers Reconnaissance Transport and Glider Blue Division Medal Ostvolk Medal Condor Legion Cuffband Crete Cuffband Afrika Cuffband Heeres Cuffbands Luftwaffe Cuffbands Waffen-SS Cuffbands Kurland Cuffband Pilot''s Badge Observer''s Badge Air Commemorative Badge Air Gunner Badge U-Boat War Badge Wound Badge Kingdom of Hanover Orders Order of St. George Royal Guelphic Order Order of Ernst August Civil decorations Merit Medal General Honor Decoration for Civil Merit Golden Honor Medal for Art and Science Military and war decorations General Honor Decoration for Civil Merit Langensalza Medal Electoral Principality of Hesse-Kassel Orders House Order of the Golden Lion Order of Wilhelm Order of the Iron Helmet Civil decorations Civil Merit Cross and Civil Merit Medal Duchy of Nassau Orders Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Military and Civil Merit Order of Adolph of Nassau Civil decorations Civil Merit Medal Medal for Art and Science Military and war decorations Bravery Medal Waterloo Medal Kingdom of Prussia Orders Order of the Black Eagle Order Pour le Mérite Order of the Red Eagle Order of the Crown Royal House Order of Hohenzollern Johanniter Order Order of Louise (for women) Civil decorations General Honor Decoration Cross of the General Honor Decoration Merit Cross in Gold or Silver Lifesaving Medal Red Cross Medal Military and war decorations Iron Cross Military Merit Cross Military Decoration 1st Class and Military Decoration 2nd Class Warrior Merit Medal Centenary Medal Merit Cross for War Aid Kingdom of Bavaria Orders Order of St. Hubertus Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception Military Order of Max Joseph Merit Order of the Bavarian Crown Merit Order of St. Michael Military Merit Order and its associated Military Merit Cross Maximilian Order for Science and Art Ludwig Order Military Medical Order Order of Saint Elizabeth (for Women) Order of Theresa (for Women) Civil decorations Civil Merit Medal Ludwig Medal for Science and Art Ludwig Medal for Industry Prince Regent Luitpold Medal Military and war decorations Golden and Silver Military Merit Medals Military Medical Decoration Merit Cross for Volunteer Medical Personnel Jubilee Medal for the Bavarian Army King Ludwig Cross Kingdom of Saxony Orders Order of the Rue Crown Military Order of St. Henry Civil Order of Saxony (also called the Civil Merit Order) Albert Order Order of Sidonia (for women) Order of Maria-Anna (for women) Civil decorations Honor Cross and Honor Cross with Crowns (also a military decoration with swords) Lifesaving Medal Medal "Virtuti et Ingenio" Medal "Bene Merentibus Military and war decorations Friedrich August Medal War Merit Cross Kingdom of Württemberg Orders Order of the Crown (Württemberg) Military Merit Order Friedrich Order Order of Olga (for women) Civil decorations Merit Medal Merit Cross Gold Medal for Art and Science Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations Golden Military Merit Medal Silver Military Merit Medal Merit Cross with Swords Wilhelm Cross Charlotte Cross Grand Duchy of Baden Orders House Order of Fidelity Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order and the Merit Medal of the Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order (Karl-Friedrich Military Merit Medal) Order of Berthold the First Order of the Zähringer Lion Civil decorations Merit Medal 1902 Jubilee Medal Friedrich-Luisen Medal 1906 Commemorative Medal Lifesaving Medals Medals for Art and Science Military and war decorations Merit Medal on the ribbon of the Military Karl-Friedrich Merit Order Field Service Decoration Commemorative Cross for Volunteer Medical Personnel 1870-71 Cross for Volunteer War Aid War Merit Cross Grand Duchy of Hesse Orders Order of the Golden Lion Ludewigsorden Order of Philip the Magnanimous Order of the Star of Brabant civil decorations General Honor Decoration Lifesaving Medal Merit Medals for Science, Art, Industry, and Agriculture Military and war decorations Military Merit Cross 1870/71 General Honor Decoration for Bravery or for War Merit Warrior Honor Decoration in Iron Military Medical Cross, 1870/71 and 1914 War Honor Decoration Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Orders House Order of the Wendish Crown Order of the Griffin Civil decorations Merit Medal Friedrich Franz Medal Medal "For Arts and Sciences"Military and war decorations Military Merit Cross Friedrich Franz Cross Friedrich Franz Alexandra Cross Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Orders House Order of the Wendish Crown Order of the Griffin Civil decorations Merit Medal Military and war decorations Cross for Distinction in War Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Orders House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis Civil decorations Civil Merit Medal Medal for Merit in the Arts Military and war decorations Friedrich August Cross War Merit Medal Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Orders House Order of Vigilance or the White Falcon Civil decorations Merit Medal (to 1902) General Honor Decoration (from 1902) Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations Wilhelm Ernst War Cross General Honor Decoration with Swords Clasp Honor Cross for Homeland Merit Duchy of Anhalt Orders Order of Albert the Bear Order of Merit for Science and Art civil decorations 1896 Jubilee Medal Military and war decorations Friedrich Cross Duchy of Brunswick Orders House Order of Henry the Lion Civil decorations Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations Peninsula Medal Waterloo Medal War Merit Cross, 1st and 2nd Classes Duchies of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen Orders Ducal Saxe-Ernestine House Order and its associated merit crosses and medals Civil decorations Medal for Art and Science (each duchy had its own version) Lifesaving Medal (each duchy had its own version) Duke Carl Eduard Medal (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) Military and war decorations Duke Ernst Medal (Saxe-Altenburg) Duke Ernst Medal 1st Class with Swords (Saxe-Altenburg) Oval Silver Duke Carl Eduard Medal with Crown (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) Carl Eduard War Cross (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha) Cross for Merit in War and Medal for Merit in War (Saxe-Meiningen) Principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen Orders Princely House Order of Hohenzollern Bene merenti Order Principality of Lippe-Detmold Orders house Order of the Honor Cross Order of Leopold Lippish Rose Order for Art and Science Civil decorations Merit Medal Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations War Honor Cross for Heroic Deeds War Merit Cross Military Merit Medal War Honor Medal Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe Orders House Order of the Honor Cross Order for Art and Science Civil decorations Merit Medal Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations Military Merit Medal Cross for Loyal Service Principalities of Reuss, Elder Line and Younger Line Orders Princely Reuss Honor Cross Civil decorations Merit Cross Merit Medal Lifesaving Medal Military and war decorations War Merit Cross "1914" Medal for Sacrificial Activity in Wartime Principalities of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Orders Princely Schwarzburg Honor Cross Civil decorations Merit Medals for Art and Science, Trade and Industry, and Agriculture Military and war decorations Silver Medal for Merit in War Principality of Waldeck Orders Order of Merit Merit Cross Military Merit Cross Civil decorations Medal for Art and Science Military and war decorations Friedrich Bathildis Medal Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck Hanseatic Cross Office of the Reich Chancellery (Hans Lammers) Office of the Party Chancellery (Martin Bormann) Office of the Presidential Chancellery (Otto Meissner) Privy Cabinet Council (Konstantin von Neurath) Chancellery of the Führer (Philip Bouhler) Office of the Four-Year Plan (Hermann Göring) Office of the Reich Master Forester (Hermann Göring) Office of the Inspector for Highways Office of the President of the Reich Bank Reich Youth Office Reich Treasury Office General Inspector of the Reich Capital Office of the Councillor for the Capital of the Movement (Munich, Bavaria) Reich Foreign Ministry (Joachim von Ribbentrop) Reich Interior Ministry (Wilhelm Frick, Heinrich Himmler) Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Joseph Goebbels) Reich Ministry of Aviation (Hermann Göring) Reich Ministry of Finance (Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk) Reich Ministry of Justice (Otto Thierack) Reich Economics Ministry (Walther Funk) Reich Ministry for Nutrition and Agriculture (Richard Walther Darré) Reich Labor Ministry (Franz Seldte) Reich Ministry for Science, Education, and Public Instruction (Bernhard Rust) Reich Ministry for Ecclesiastical Affairs (Hanns Kerrl) Reich Transportation Ministry (Julius Dorpmüller) Reich Postal Ministry (Wilhelm Ohnesorge) Reich Ministry for Weapons, Munitions, and Armament (Fritz Todt, Albert Speer) Reich Ministers without Portfolio (Konstantin von Neurath, Hans Frank, Hjalmar Schacht, Arthur Seyss-Inquart) Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Alfred Rosenberg) General Government of Poland (Hans Frank) Reich Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Konstantin von Neurath) Deputy eich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia (Reinhard Heydrich) Office of the Military Governor of France Reichstag President of the Reichstag (Hermann Göring) reichsrat (disbanded February 14, 1934) Military organization World War II world war I world war 2 world war 1 ek1 ek2 wk1 wk2 The Nazi war flag and Ensign of the Kriegsmarine Wehrmacht – Armed Forces OKW – Armed Forces High Command Chief of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces – Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel Chief of the Operations Staff – Colonel General Alfred Jodl Heer – Army OKH – Army High Command Army Commanders-in-Chief Colonel General Werner von Fritsch (1935 to 1938) Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch (1938 to 1941) Führer and Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler (1941 to 1945) Field Marshal Ferdinand Schörner (1945) Kriegsmarine – Navy OKM – Navy High Command Navy Commanders-in-Chief Grand Admiral Erich Raeder (1928-1943) Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (1943-1945) General Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (1945) Luftwaffe – Airforce OKL – Airforce High Command Reichsluftschutzbund (Air Force Auxiliary) Air Force Commanders-in-Chief Reich Marshal Hermann Göring (to 1945) Field Marshal Robert Ritter von Greim (1945) Abwehr – Military Intelligence Rear Admiral Konrad Patzig (1932-1935) Vice Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (1935-1944) Waffen-SS – Nazi Party military branch Paramilitary organizations Sturmabteilung (SA) Schutzstaffel (SS) Allgemeine SS Waffen SS Germanische SS Deutscher Volkssturm Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrerkorps (NSKK) nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK) National police Reich Central Security Office (RSHA – Reichssicherheitshauptamt) Ernst Kaltenbrunner Order Police (Ordnungspolizei (Orpo)) Schutzpolizei (Safety Police) Gendarmerie (Rural Police) Gemeindepolizei (Local Police) Security Police (Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo)) Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) Reichskriminalpolizei (Kripo) Sicherheitsdienst (SD) Political organizations Nazi Party – National Socialist German Workers’ Party (abbreviated NSDAP) Youth organizations Hitler-Jugend – Hitler Youth (for boys and young men) Baldur von Schirach Bund Deutscher Mädel (for girls and young women) Deutsches Jungvolk (for boys and girls ages 6–8) Service organizations Deutsche Reichsbahn (State Railway) Reichspost (State Postal Service) Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (German Red Cross) Religious organizations German Christians Protestant Reich Church Academic organizations National Socialist German University Teachers League National Socialist German Students League medal medaille Königreich Hannover Guelphen-Orden (1815) Guelphen-Ordens-Medaille (1815) Waterloo-Medaille (1817) Verdienstmedaille (1831) Wilhelms-Kreuz (1837) Wilhelms-Medaille (1837) St. Georgs-Orden (1839) Erinnerungsmedaille an das 50-jährige Militärjubiläum (1840) Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813 (1841) Kriegsdenkmünze 1814 (Hannover) (1841) Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen (1841) Goldene Ehrenmedaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1843) Ernst-August-Kreuz (1845) Verdienstmedaille für Rettung aus Gefahr (1845) Ernst-August-Orden (1865) Langensalza-Medaille (1866) Namenszug mit Diamanten Kurfürstentum Hessen-Kassel Orden Pour la Vertu Militaire (1769) Hausorden vom Goldenen Löwen (1770) Orden vom eisernen Helm (1814) Militär-Verdienstorden (1820) Kriegsdenkmünze für 1814–1815 (1821) Militär-Verdienstmedaille (1821) Zivil-Verdienstmedaille (1821) Verdienstkreuz (1832) Militär-Verdienstkreuz (1832) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz (1835) Dienstauszeichnungen (1849) Wilhelmsorden (1851) Großherzogtum Würzburg Orden des heiligen Josephs (1807) Tapferkeitsmedaille Herzogtum Nassau Tapferkeitsmedaille (1807) Waterloo-Medaille (1815) Militärdienst-Ehrenzeichen (1834) Zivilverdienstmedaille (1841) Medaille für Rettung aus Lebensgefahr (1843) Medaille für das Gefecht bei Eckernförde (1849) Militär- und Zivildienst-Orden Adolphs von Nassau (1858) Hausorden vom Goldenen Löwen (1858) Medaille für den Feldzug 1866 (1866) Fürstentum Isenburg-Birstein Orden Pour mes Amis (1809) Kriegsdenkmünze 1814–15 (1815) Landgrafschaft Hessen-Homburg Schwerterkreuz 1814–1815 (1819) Dienstauszeichnungen (1850) Felddienstzeichen für den Feldzug 1849 (1850) Freie Stadt Frankfurt Concordienorden Ehrenmedaille (1809) Kriegsdenkmünze 1813/1814 Ehrenkreuz für 1814 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1815 Kriegsdenkzeichen 1848–1849 (1853) Dienstalterszeichen Schleswig-Holstein St.-Annen-Orden (1735) Armee-Erinnerungskreuz 1848–49 (1850) Erinnerungszeichen für Armee-Musiker an den Krieg 1848–49 (1850) Erinnerungsmedaille an die Proklamation Herzog Friedrich VIII. (1864) Deutsches Reich bis 1918 Könige von Preußen vor Kriegsdenkmünze für die Feldzüge 1870–71 (1871) Kriegerverdienstmedaille (1892) Jerusalem-Kreuz (1898) China-Denkmünze (1901) Südwestafrika-Denkmünze (1907) Kolonial-Denkmünze (1912) Helvetia Benigna-Medaille (1917) Kreuz für Verdienste um das Militär-Brieftaubenwesen (1917) Deutsches Reich, Ehrenzeichen von Truppenteilen bis 1918 Souville-Abzeichen (Souville-Eichenblatt), Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment 81 (1916) Souville-Abzeichen (Souville-Knopf), Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment 88 (1916) Auszeichnungen der Bundesstaaten Königreich Preußen Wappen Preußens Schwarzer-Adler-Orden (1701) Pour le Mérite (1740) Medaille für Rettung Schiffbrüchiger (1782) Roter-Adler-Orden (1792) Militärverdienstkreuz (1793) Medaille für Untertanentreue (1795) Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen (1810) Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813/15 (1813) Eisernes Kreuz (1813) Luisen-Orden (1814) Neufchateler Erinnerungsmedaille (1833) Rettungsmedaille am Band (1833) Krieger-Verdienstmedaille (1835) Königlicher Hausorden von Hohenzollern (1851) Kronen-Orden (1861) Krönungsmedaille (1862) Erinnerungsdenkmünze von 1863 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1864 Alsenkreuz (1864) Düppeler Sturmkreuz (1864) Erinnerungskreuz für 1866 Medaille Arbeit für das Vaterland (1870) Verdienstkreuz für Frauen und Jungfrauen (1871) Erinnerungsmedaille von Kaiser Wilhelm (1878) Medaille zur Erinnerung an die Golden Hochzeit (1879) Wilhelm-Orden (1896) Kaiser-Wilhelm-Erinnerungsmedaille (sog. „Centenarmedaille“) (1897) Rote Kreuz-Medaille (1898) Verdienstorden der Preußischen Krone (1901) Hannoversche Jubiläumsdenkmünze (1903) Kurhessische Jubiläumsdenkmünze (1903)Erinnerungszeichen zur Silbernen Hochzeit (1906) Frauen-Verdienstkreuz (1907) Ölberg-Kreuz (1909) Verdienstkreuz (1912) Kurhessische Jubiläums-Denkmünze (1913) Militär-Flugzeugführer-Abzeichen (1913) Abzeichen für Marine-Flugzeugführer auf Seeflugzeugen (1913) Abzeichen für Beobachter (1914) Verdienstkreuz für Kriegshilfe (1916) Verwundetenabzeichen (1918) U-Boot-Kriegsabzeichen (1918) Johanniter-Orden Allgemeine Verdienstmedaille Kreuz für treue Dienste Hebammen-Ehrenzeichen Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um das Feuerlöschwesen Erinnerungszeichen für Bedienstete der Staatseisenbahnen Kaluga-Erinnerungsmedaille zum 25-jährigen Jubiläum Königreich Bayern Wappen des Königsreiches Bayern St. Hubertusorden (Orden vom Hl. Hubertus) Hausorden vom Hl. Georg Militär-Max-Joseph-Orden St. Elisabethenorden (1766) Orden vom Pfälzer Löwen (1767) St. Anna-Orden (1783) Civilverdienst-Medaille (1792/1805/1806) Militär-Verdienstmedaille (1794) Verdienstorden der Bayerischen Krone (1808) Militär-Sanitäts-Ehrenzeichen (1812) Militärdenkzeichen für 1813/1815 (1814) Veteranenschild für 40 Dienstjahre in der Bayerischen Armee (1816) Veteranenschild für 24 Dienstjahre in der Bayerischen Armee (1816) Theresienorden (1827) Ludwigsorden (Bayern) (1827) Verdienstorden vom Hl. Michael (1837) Medaille des Militärdenkzeichen für 1813/1815 (1848) Veteranen-Denkzeichen (1848) Denkzeichen für das Jahr 1849 (1849) Maximiliansorden für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1853) ienstalterszeichen – ab 1876 Dienstauszeichnungskreuz militärverdienstorden (1866) Feldzug-Denkzeichen 1849 (1866) Armeedenkzeichen 1866 (1866) Erinnerungszeichen für Zivilärzte 1866 (1867) Verdienstkreuz für die Jahre 1870/71 (1871) Ludwigsmedaille für Wissenschaft und Kunst (1872) Ludwigsmedaille für Industrie (1872) Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung (1876) Rettungsmedaille (1889) St. Georgs-Medaille (1889) Luitpoldmedaille (1897) verdienstkreuz für freiwillige Krankenpflege (1901) Feuerwehr-Verdienstkreuz (1901) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz für freiwillige Krankenpflege (1901) Inhaber-Jubiläumsmedaille (1904) Prinzregent Luitpold-Medaille (1905) Jubiläumsmedaille für die bayerische Armee (1905) Sicherheits-Dienstauszeichnung (1906) Militär-Jubiläumsmedaille (1909) Landwirtschaftliche Jubiläumsmedaille (1910) Luitpold-Kreuz für 40 Dienstjahre in Staats- und Gemeindedienst (1911) Flugzeugführerabzeichen (1913) Militär-Sanitäts-Orden (1914) Militär-Fliegerbeobachterabzeichen (1914) Fliegererinnerungsabzeichen (1914) König Ludwig-Kreuz (1916) Fliegerschützenabzeichen (1918) Hochzeits-Jubiläumsmedaille (1918) Erinnerungszeichen an die Goldene Hochzeit des Königspaares (1918) Jubiläumskreuz für Offiziere und Unteroffiziere des K. und K. Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 62 Ludwig III. König von Bayern (1918) Erinnerungskreuz für die Mitglieder beider Kammern (1918) Haus Wittelsbach (Bayerisches Königshaus) nach 1918 Kronprinz Rupprecht Medaille (1925–1934) Erinnerungszeichen an den 60. Geburtstag des Kronprinzen Rupprecht von Bayern (1929) Pfalz-Medaille (1930) Jubiläums-Medaille des 2. Königlich Bayerischen Infanterie Regiments „Kronprinz“ (1932) Jubiläums-Medaille des 10. Königlich Bayerischen Infanterie Regiments „König“ (1932) Jubiläums-Medaille des 1. Königlich Bayerischen Chevaulegers Regiments (1932) Jubiläums-Medaille des 2. Königlich Bayerischen Chevaulegers Regiments „Taxis“ (1932) Weltkriegs-Erinnerungskreuz des 22. Königlich Bayerischen Infanterie Regiments Königreich Sachsen Sächsische Orden Militär-St. Heinrichs-Orden (1736) Hausorden der Rautenkrone (1807) Zivilverdienstorden (1815) Rettungsmedaille (1831) Albrechts-Orden (1850) Militär-St. Heinrichs-Medaille (1866) Erinnerungskreuz für den Feldzug 1866 (1867) Sidonien-Orden (1870) Erinnerungskreuz für freiwillige Krankenpflege 1870/71 (1871) Erinnerungskreuz an den Feldzug 1849 (1874) Ehrenzeichen für Treue in der Arbeit (1875) Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen (1876) Carola-Medaille (1892) Maria-Anna-Orden (1906) Friedrich-August-Medaille (1905) Ehrenkreuz (1907) Ehrenkreuz für Freiwillige Krankenpflege im Frieden (1912) Kriegsverdienstkreuz (1915) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen Denkmünze 1863/64 Denkmünze 1866 Medaille für Verdienste in der Landwirtschaft Medaille Virtuti et Ingenio Wettiner Jubiläums-Medaille Jubiläums-Medaille Königreich Württemberg Orden vom goldenen Adler Orden der Württembergischen Krone Militärverdienstorden (1806) Militärverdienstmedaille (1806) Medaille für den Sieg bei Brienne (1814) Ehrenzeichen für den Feldzug 1815 Friedrichs-Orden (1830) Militärdienstehrenzeichen (1833) Kriegsdenkmünze (1840) Zivilverdienstmedaille (1841) Kriegsdenkmünze für den Feldzug in Schleswig-Holstein (1849) Dienstalterszeichen (1850) Olga-Orden (1871) Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung (1879) Feuerwehr-Dienstehrenzeichen (1885) Karl-Olga-Medaille (1889) Wilhelmskreuz (Württemberg) (1915) Charlottenkreuz (1916) Großherzogtum Baden Orden der blauen Binde (1584) Hausorden der Treue (1715) Militär-Karl-Friedrich-Verdienstorden (1805) Karl Friedrich-Militär-Verdienst-Medaille (1807) Orden vom Zähringer Löwen (1812) Felddienstauszeichnung (1839) Gedächtnis-Medaille (1840) Medaille für Landwirtschaft, Gewerbe und Handel (1846) Militär-Gedächtnis-Medaille von 1849 (1849) Verdienstmedaille (1866) Rettungsmedaille (1866) Dienstauszeichnung (1868) Erinnerungskreuz für den Feldzug 1870/71 (1871) Kreuz für weibliche Dienstboten (1876) Orden Berthold des Ersten (1877) Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung (1877) Ehrenzeichen für Mitglieder der freiwilligen Feuerwehren (1877) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1893) Jubiläums-Medaille für Hemammen (1884) Arbeiter-Medaille (1895) Regierungs-Jubiläums-Medaille von 1902 (1902) Arbeiterinnen-Kreuz (1902) Friedrich-Luisen-Medaille (1906) Erinnerungs-Medaille für 1906 (1906) Erinnerungs-Zeichen für 1906 (1906) Kriegsverdienstkreuz (1916) großherzogtum Hessen-Darmstadt Hausorden vom Goldenen Löwen (1770) Großherzoglich Hessischer Ludwigsorden (1807) Orden Philipps des Großmütigen (1840) Felddienstzeichen (1840) Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen (Hessische Tapferkeitsmedaille) (1843) Hessisches Militär-Verdienstkreuz (1870) Militär-Sanitätskreuz (1870) Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung (1871) Erinnerungsmedaille (1881) Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste in der Wassernot 1882–1883 (1883) Alice-Medaille (1884) Erinnerungsmedaille an die Vermählung des Großherzogs Ernst Ludwig (1894) Kreuz für weibliche Dienstboten (1895) Erinnerungszeichen an die zweite Vermählung des Großherzogs Ernst Ludwig (1905) Erinnerungszeichen für Eisenbahndienst (1906) Ernst Ludwig-Eleonoren-Kreuz (1910) Stern von Brabant (1914) Ehrenzeichen für Kriegsfürsorge (1915) Hochzeitsmedaille Ernst Ludwig und Eleonore (1916) Krieger-Ehrenzeichen in Eisen (1917) Jubiläums-Erinnerungszeichen (1917) Großherzogtum Mecklenburg-Schwerin Medaille dem redlichen Manne und dem guten Bürger (1798) Verdienstmedaille 1798/1815/1859/1872/1885/1897) Militärverdienstmedaille für 1813–1815 (1814) Kriegsdenkmünze für 1808–1815 (1841) Militärverdienstkreuz (1848) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1859) Jubiläumsspange 1813–1863 (1863) Hausorden der Wendischen Krone (gemeinsam mit Mecklenburg-Strelitz) (1864) Landwehrdienst-Auszeichnung (1874) Kriegsdenkmünze für 1848/1849 (1879) Greifenorden (ab 1904 gemeinsam mit Mecklenburg-Strelitz) (1884) Verdienstmedaille Friedrich-Franz III. (1885) Ehrenmedaille für aufopfernde Hilfe in der Wassernot 1888 (1888) Gedächtnis-Medaille für Friedrich Franz III. (1897) Kriegervereins-Medaille (1899) erinnerungsmedaille für die Teilnehmer an der Afrika-Expedition 1907–1908 (1908) Friedrich-Franz-Alexandra Kreuz (1912) Friedrich-Franz-Kreuz (1917) Großherzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz Militär-Dienstkreuz (1846/1869/1913) Hausorden der Wendischen Krone (gemeinsam mit Mecklenburg-Schwerin) (1864) Kreuz für Auszeichnung im Kriege (1871) Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung (1875/1913) Medaille zur Erinnerung an die Goldene Hochzeit 1893 (1893) Medaille zur Erinnerung an die Diamant-Hochzeit 1903 (1903) Verdienstmedaille (1904/1914) Greifenorden (gemeinsam mit Mecklenburg-Schwerin) (1904) Kriegervereins-Medaille (1906) Orden für Kunst und Wissenschaft (Mecklenburg-Strelitz) (1909) Medaille für Rettung aus Lebensgefahr (1910) Erinnerungszeichen für langjährige Diensttreue für Personen weiblichen Geschlechts (1911) Erinnerungskreuz für langjährige Diensttreue für Personen weiblichen Geschlechts (1911) Gedächtnismedaille für den Großherzog Adolf Friedrich V. (1914) Adolf-Friedrich-Kreuz (1917) Großherzogtum Oldenburg Zivilverdienstmedaille (1814) Kriegsdenkmünze für den Feldzug 1815 (1816) Haus- und Verdienstorden des Herzogs Peter Friedrich Ludwig (1838) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz in Gold für 25 Dienstjahre der Offiziere (1838–1867) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz in Silber für 25 Dienstjahre vom Feldwebel abwärts (1838–1867) Dienstauszeichnungen für 18, 12 oder 9 Dienstjahre (1847) Verdienstmedaille für Rettung aus Gefahr (1848) Medaille zur Erinnerung an Großherzog Paul Friedrich August (1853) Erinnerungsmedaille an den Feldzug 1866 (1866) Erinnerungsmedaille 1870/71 (1871) Verdienstkreuz für Aufopferung und Pflichttreue in Kriegszeiten (1871) Medaille für Verdienste um die Kunst (1878) Erinnerungsmedaille für die Veteranen 1848 und 1849 (1898) Kriegervereins-Verdienstkreuz (1902) Medaille für Treue in der Arbeit (1904) Medaille für Verdienste in der Feuerwehr (1904) Rote Kreuz-Medaille (1908) Gendarmendienstauszeichnung für 18, 12 oder 9 Dienstjahre (1913) Friedrich-August-Kreuz (1914) Kriegsverdienstmedaille 1916–1918 Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach Großherzoglich Sächsischer Hausorden der Wachsamkeit oder Hausorden vom Weißen Falken (1732, erneut 1815) Medaille für Treue Krieger (1815) Medaille MERITIS NOBILIS (1820) dienstauszeichnungskreuz (1834) Ehrenzeichen für rühmliche Tätigkeiten 1870/1871 Lebensrettungs-Medaille (1881) Ehrenzeichen für Frauen (1899) Allgemeines Ehrenzeichen (1902) Krieger-Ehrenkreuz für deutsche Treue (1909) Wilhelm-Ernst-Kriegskreuz (1915) Ehrenzeichen für Frauenverdienst im Kriege (1915) Verdienstkreuz für Heimatverdienste 1914/18 (1918) Herzogtum Anhalt-Köthen Orden des Verdienstes Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1814 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813 und 1814 Kriegsdenkmünze 1815 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813 und 1815 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1814 und 1815 Kriegsdenkmünze für 1813, 1814 und 1815 Medaille für Verdienst, Anhänglichkeit und Treue (1835) Hausorden Albrechts des Bären Dienstauszeichnungskreuz für Offiziere ienstauszeichnungsschnalle Herzogtum Anhalt-Bernburg Kriegsdenkzeichen für 1814–1815 (1818) Medaille für fünfzigjährige Diensttreue (1835) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz (1847) Dienstauszeichnungen (1847) Alexander-Carl-Denkmünze (1853) Medaille für Verdienste um Kunst und Wissenschaft (1856) herzogtum Anhalt-Dessau Feldzugs-Kreuz für 1813–1815 (1823) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz für Offiziere (1848) Dienstauszeichnungen für Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften (1848) Herzogtum Anhalt (Gesamtstaat 1863–1918) Hausorden Albrechts des Bären Friedrich-Kreuz Verdienstehrenzeichen für Rettung aus Gefahr Verdienstorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst Denkzeichen für fünfzigjährige Diensttreue (1864) Medaille Zur Erinnerung (1867) Dienstauszeichnung Ehrenzeichen für Mitglieder der Feuerwehren (1888) Erinnerungskreuz für langjährige Diensttreue Weiblicher Dienstboten (1894) Ehrenzeichen für Treue in der Arbeit (1892) Erinnerungsmedaille zum 25-jährigen Regierungsjubiläum 1896 (1896) Erinnerungsabzeichen an den 90. Geburtstag der Herzogin-Witwe Friedericke zu Anhalt-Bernburg (1901) Ehrenkreuz für Hebammen (1906) Marien-Kreuz (1918) Herzogtum Braunschweig Waterloo-Medaille (1818) Ehrenkreuz für 1809 (1824) Peninsula-Medaille (1824) Zivil-Verdienst-Medaille für 1815 (1827) Dienstehrenzeichen (1827/1833) Orden Heinrichs des Löwen (1834) Rettungsmedaille (1836) Militär-Verdienstkreuz von 1879 Landwehrdienstauszeichnung (1879) Feuerwehrdienstauszeichnung (1887) Erinnerungsmedaille für 1848–1849 (1891) Dienstzeichen (1903) Verdienstzeichen für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1908) Frauenverdienstkreuz (1912) Feuerwehr-Verdienstmedaille (1912) Militär-Verdienstkreuz von 1914 Kriegsverdienstkreuz (1914) Kriegsverdienstkreuz für Frauen und Jungfrauen (1917) Bewährungsabzeichen (1918) Sächsische Herzogtümer Herzoglich Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden Sachsen-Altenburg Militärverdienstmedaille 1814 Kriegsdenkmünze 1814/1815 (1816) Dienstauszeichnungskreuz (Sachsen-Altenburg) (1836) Erinnerungsmedaille für Hilfeleistungen beim Schloßbrand 1864 Medaille zur Erinnerung an den Krieg 1870/71 Erinnerungsmedaille für den Feldzug 1849 (1874) Erinnerungsmedaille zum 50-jährigen Bestehen des Herzogtums (1876) Lebensrettungsmedaille (1882) Silberne Ehrenauszeichnung für Arbeiter und Dienstboten (1886) Ehrenzeichen für Mitglieder der Feuerwehren (1900) Medaille zum 50-jährigen Regierungsjubiläum 1903 Herzog-Ernst-Medaille (1906) Dienstauszeichnung für Hof- und Standesbeamte, Geistliche und Lehrer (1913) Tapferkeitsmedaille (1915) Landwehrdienstauszeichnung Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha Militär-Verdienstmedaille (1814) Eiserne Medaille für die Freiwilligen des V. Armee-Korps (1814) Kriegsdenkmünze an den Feldzug 1814 Verdienstkreuz für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1835) Militär-Dienstauszeichnung Erinnerungskreuz für Eckernförde (1849) Medaille für weibliches Verdienst (1869) Lebensrettungsmedaille (1883) Herzog Ernst-Medaille (1888) Erinnerungsmedaille zur goldenen Hochzeit Herzog Ernst II. (1892) Erinnerungsmedaille an den Einzug Herzog Alfred (1894) Herzog Alfred-Medaille (1896) Erinnerungsmedaille zur silbernen Hochzeit von Herzog Alfred (1899) Erinnerungsmedaille zum Regierungsantritt von Herzog Carl Eduard (1905) Erinnerungsmedaille zur Hochzeit von Herzog Carl Eduard (1905) Herzog Carl Eduard-Medaille Carl Eduard-Kriegskreuz (1916) Ehrenzeichen für den Heimatverdienst Kriegserinnerungskreuz 1914–1918 (1916) Feuerwehr Ehrenzeichen Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld St.-Joachims-Orden (1755) Campagne-Medaille 1814/15 Eiserne Medaille 1814 für Offiziere/Mannschaften Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen Verdienstorden für Kunst und Wissenschaft Zivildienstauszeichnung (1913) Kreuz für Verdienste im Kriege (1915) Medaille für Verdienste im Kriege (1915) Kreuz für Verdienste von Frauen und Jungfrauen in der Kriegsfürsorge (1915) Hohenzollernsche Fürstlich Hohenzollernscher Hausorden Dienstauszeichnungskreuz (1841) Ehrenmedaille (1842) Fürstlich Hohenzollernsches Ehrenkreuz Bene merenti-Medaille (1857) Medaille auf die goldene Hochzeit 1884 Erinnerungszeichen an die goldene Hochzeit 1884 Erinnerungszeichen zur silbernen Hochzeit 1886 Erinnerungsmedaille für das Füsilier-Regiment Fürst Carl Anton von Hohenzollern (1893) Verdienstkreuz (1910) Carl Anton-Erinnerungsmedaille (1911) Fürstentum Lippe-Detmold Hausorden des Ehrenkreuzes Leopold-Orden Denkmünze auf den Einzug des Graf-Regenten Ernst 1897 in Detmold Denkmünze auf den Erstrittenen Thronanspruch 1905 Dienstauszeichnungskreuz (1851) Dienstauszeichnungs-Schnalle von 1857 Erinnerungsmedaille für den Feldzug 1866 (1867) rettungsmedaille (1888) Lippisches Kriegervereins-Kreuz (1906) Militär-Verdienstmedaille Orden für Kunst und Wissenschaft Kriegsverdienstkreuz Kriegsehrenkreuz für heldenmütige Tat Kriegs-Ehrenmedaille Bertha-Orden Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe Hausorden des Ehrenkreuzes Militärdenkmünze für die Feldzüge 1808–1815 Gedenkkreuz für den Feldzug 1849 Kreuz für treue Dienste Reußische Fürstentümer Erinnerungskreuz für Eckernförde (1849) Verdienstmedaille Zivil-Ehrenkreuz (1857) Ehrenmedaille für Treue und Verdienst (1867) Reußisches Ehrenkreuz (1869) Verdienstkreuz für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1885) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1908) Kriegsverdienstkreuz 1914 (1915) Medaille für Heimatverdienst (1915) Medaille für aufopfernde Tätigkeit in Kriegszeit (1915) Verdienstmedaille mit Krone und Schwert (1915) Reußisches Fürstentum Verdienstkreuz (1858) Medaille Merito ac dignitati (1872) Reußisches Fürstentum Verdienstkreuz (1857) Verdienstmedaille für treue Dienste (1859) Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Dienstauszeichnungen (1850) Ehrenkreuz von Schwarzburg (1853) Dienstbelohnungsmedaille (1853) Ehrenmedaille (1857) Erinnerungskreuz für 1814–1815 (1860) Dienstauszeichnungen für Soldaten (1867) Ehrenmedaille für Kriegsverdienst 1870/71 (1871) Verdienstmedaille für Kunst, Wissenschaft, Handel, Gewerbe und Landwirtschaft (1899) Anerkennungsmedaille für löbliche Leistungen oder gute Dienste (1899)Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Kriegsmedaille für 1814/15 (1815) Dienstauszeichnungen (1838) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1846) Medaille für Verdienste um die Landwirtschaft (1846) Ehrenkreuz von Schwarzburg (1857) Ehrenmedaille (1866) Medaille für Rettung aus Gefahr (1870) Ehrenmedaille für Kriegsverdienst 1870/71 (1871) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1895) Medaille für Treue in der Arbeit (1896) Goldene Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (Schwarzburg–Sondershausen) (1898) Erinnerungsmedaille an das 25-jährige Regierungsjubiläum (1905) Medaille für Verdienst im Kriege (1914) Ehrenmedaille mit Eichenbruch 1914/15 (1915) Anna-Luisen-Verdienstzeichen (1918) Fürstentum Waldeck Orden der wahrhaften Glückseligkeit (Orden de la veritable Felicité) (1721) Feldzugsmedaille 1809–1810 (1850) Feldzugsmedaille 1813–1815 (1850) Dienstauszeichnungen für Soldaten und Gendarmen (1848) Verdienstmedaille (1857) Feldzugsmedaille 1814/1815 (1862) Militär-Verdienstkreuz (1871 bis 1896) Verdienstorden (1871 bis 1896) Verdienstkreuz (1896) Auszeichnung für weibliche Dienstboten und Angestellte (1897) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1899) Kriegervereinsehrenzeichen (1912) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1913) Friedrich-Bathildis-Medaille (1915) Hansestadt Bremen Kriegsdenkmünze der Hanseatischen Legion (1815) Dienstauszeichnungen (1860) Hanseatenkreuz Hansestadt Hamburg Kriegsdenkmünze der Hanseatischen Legion (1815) Seewarte-Medaille Dienstauszeichungskreuz für Offiziere Ehrenauszeichnung für ehemalige Hamburger Militärs Rettungsmedaille Medaille für ilfeleistungen beim Stadtbrand 1842 (1843) Hanseatenkreuz (1915) Hansestadt Lübeck [Bearbeiten] Kriegsdenkmünze der Hanseatischen Legion (1815) Gedenkmünze Bene Merenti Rettungsmedaille Ehrendenkmünze für Treue Dienste Hanseatenkreuz weimarer Republik Wappen der Weimarer Republik Erinnerungsabzeichen für Heeres-Luftschiffer (1920) Erinnerungsabzeichen für Marine-Luftschiffer (1920) Kampfwagen-Erinnerungsabzeichen (1921) Kolonialabzeichen (1922)Nicht-Staatliche Auszeichnungen in der Weimarer Republik Kolonialauszeichnung (Löwenorden) Flandernkreuz Deutsche Ehrendenkmünze des Weltkriegs (Deutsche Ehrenlegion) Kriegsehrenkreuz (Ehrenbund deutscher Weltkriegsteilnehmer) Freikorpsauszeichnungen Baltenkreuz Schlesischer Adler Freistaat Anhalt Rettungsmedaille am Bande Feuerwehr-Erinnerungszeichen Arbeitsdienst-Erinnerungszeichen Republik Baden Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1920) Staatsmedaille (1927) Freistaat Bayern Rettungsmedaille Ehrenzeichen für hervorragende Leistungen im Feuerwehrdienst (1920) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1920) Feuerwehr-Verdienstkreuz (1928) Volksstaat Hessen [Bearbeiten] Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen für Treue Dienste (1922) Freistaat Lippe [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (1925) Staatsmedaille (1926) Erinnerungszeichen für Verdienste um das Feuerlöschwesen (1927) Freistaat Mecklenburg-Schwerin [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (1926) Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (1922) Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1928) Freistaat Oldenburg [Bearbeiten] Medaille für Verdienste im Feuerlöschwesen (1928) Freistaat Schaumburg-Lippe [Bearbeiten] Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1924) Freistaat Thüringen [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (1926) Freistaat Waldeck [Bearbeiten] Feuerwehr-Erinnerungszeichen (1927) Volksstaat Württemberg [Bearbeiten] Feuerwehrdienst-Ehrenzeichen (1919/1925) Medaille der König-Karl-Jubiläumsstiftung (1920) Rettungsmedaille (1924) Freie Stadt Danzig [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (1927) Erinnerungszeichen für Verdienst um das Feuerlöschwesen (1932) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen Treuedienst-Ehrenzeichen Polizei-Dienstauszeichnung Danziger Kreuz (1939) Ehrenzeichen des Roten Kreuzes (bis 1934)Verdienstkreuz des Roten Kreuzes (ab 1934) Verdienstplakette der Freien Stadt Danzig Flak-Erinnerungsabzeichen der Stadt Danzig Ehrennadel der SS-Heimwehr Danzig (1939) Auszeichnungen des III. Reiches [Bearbeiten] Kriegsauszeichnungen des Zweiten Weltkriegs Rettungsmedaille (1933) (1933) Ehrenkreuz des Weltkrieges 1914–1918 (1934) Olympia-Ehrenzeichen (1936) Olympia-Erinnerungsmedaille (1936) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1936) Reichsgrubenwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1936) Deutscher Nationalorden für Kunst und Wissenschaft (1937) Verdienstorden vom Deutschen Adler (1937) Ehrenkreuz der deutschen Mutter (1938) Grubenwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1938) Luftschutz-Ehrenzeichen (1938) Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 13. März 1938 (1938) Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 1. Oktober 1938 und Spange Prager Burg (1938) Medaille zur Erinnerung an die Heimkehrer des Memellandes (1939) Spanienkreuz (1939) Verwundetenabzeichen für Mitglieder der Legion Condor im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg (1939) Ehrenkreuz für Hinterbliebene Deutscher Spanienkämpfer (1939) Ehrenzeichen für deutsche Volkspflege (1939) Deutsches Schutzwall-Ehrenzeichen (1939) Kriegsverdienstkreuz und Kriegsverdienstmedaille (1939) Verwundetenabzeichen (1939) Eisernes Kreuz (1939) Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit fünf Abstufungen Eisernes Kreuz Deutsches Kreuz (1941) Medaille Winterschlacht im Osten 1941/42 (1942) Tapferkeits- und Verdienstauszeichnung für Angehörige der Ostvölker (1942) Kraftfahrbewährungsabzeichen (1942) Verwundetenabzeichen 20. Juli 1944 (1944) Bandenkampfabzeichen(1) (1944) Scharfschützenabzeichen(1) (1944) Ärmelschilde Trageweise am linken Oberarm Narvikschild (1940) Cholmschild (1942) Krimschild (1942) Demjanskschild (1943) Kubanschild (1943)Warschauschild (1945) Ärmelbänder Trageweise um den linken Unterarm Ärmelband Afrika (1943) Ärmelband Kreta (1942) Ärmelband Metz 1944 (1944) Ärmelband Kurland (1945) Heer [Bearbeiten] Panzertruppenabzeichen der Legion Condor (1936) Fallschirmschützenabzeichen des Heeres (1937) Infanterie-Sturmabzeichen (1939) Panzerkampfabzeichen(1) (1939) Allgemeines Sturmabzeichen (1) (1940) Heeres-Flakabzeichen (1941) Sonderabzeichen für Niederkämpfen von Panzerkampfwagen durch Einzelkämpfer (1942) Nahkampfspange (1942) ballonbeobachterabzeichen(1) (1944) Ehrenblattspange des Heeres (1944) Tieffliegervernichtungsabzeichen (1945) Luftwaffe [Bearbeiten] Flugzeugführerabzeichen (1935) Beobachterabzeichen (1935) Gemeinsames Flugzeugführer- und Beobachterabzeichen (1935) Fliegerschützenabzeichen (1935) Fallschirmschützenabzeichen der Luftwaffe (1936) Flieger-Erinnerungsabzeichen (1936) Segelflugzeugführerabzeichen (1940) Frontflugspange (1) (1941) Flak-Kampfabzeichen der Luftwaffe (1941) Erdkampfabzeichen der Luftwaffe(1) (1942) Seekampfabzeichen der Luftwaffe (1944) Ehrenblattspange der Luftwaffe (1944) Nahkampfspange der Luftwaffe (1) (1944) Panzerkampfabzeichen Luftwaffe(1) (1944) Nichttragbare Auszeichnungen der Luftwaffe Kriegsmarine [Bearbeiten] U-Boot-Kriegsabzeichen (1939) Zerstörer-Kriegsabzeichen (1940) Kriegsabzeichen für Minensuch-, U-Boot-Jagd- und Sicherungsverbände (1940) Kriegsabzeichen für Hilfskreuzer (1941) Flotten-Kriegsabzeichen (1941) Schnellboot-Kriegsabzeichen (1941) Kriegsabzeichen für die Marineartillerie (1941) Abzeichen für Blockadebrecher (1941) Ehrenblattspange der Kriegsmarine (1944) Kampfabzeichen der Kleinkampfmittel in sieben Stufen (1) (1944) Bewährungsabzeichen für Kleinkampfmittel (1944) U-Boot-Frontspange (1944) Marine-Frontspange (1944) Waffen-SS [Bearbeiten] Germanische Leistungsrune (1943) Auszeichnungen der NSDAP [Bearbeiten] Liste der Auszeichnungen der NSDAP Öffentliche Verwaltung [Bearbeiten] Treudienst-Ehrenzeichen (1938) Zollgrenzschutz-Ehrenzeichen (1939) Bundesrepublik Deutschland [Bearbeiten]Wappen der BRD Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (2) Eichendorff-Plakette Grubenwehr-Ehrenzeichen Pro-Musica-Plakette Silbermedaille für den Behindertensport Silbernes Lorbeerblatt Sportplakette Zelter-Plakette Bundeswehr [Bearbeiten] Ehrenzeichen der Bundeswehr (2) Ehrenmedaille der Bundeswehr Ehrenkreuz der Bundeswehr Ehrenkreuz der Bundeswehr für Tapferkeit Einsatzmedaille der Bundeswehr (3) Einsatzmedaille Fluthilfe des BMI / BMVg zum Elbehochwasser 2002 Einsatzmedaille Gefecht Bundesanstalt Technisches Hilfswerk (THW) [Bearbeiten] Ehrenzeichen des Technischen Hilfswerks in Bronze, Silber und Gold Orden und Ehrenzeichen der Bundesländer [Bearbeiten] Baden-Württemberg [Bearbeiten] Staatsmedaille für Land- und Forstwirtschaft (1818) Rettungsmedaille (Baden-Württemberg) (1953) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Baden-Württemberg) (1956) Verdienstorden des Landes Baden-Württemberg (1974) Staufermedaille (1977) Ehrennadel des Landes Baden-Württemberg (1982) Wirtschaftsmedaille des Landes Baden-Württemberg (1987) Bayern [Bearbeiten] Bayerischer Verdienstorden (1853) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (1920) Bayerische Rettungsmedaille (1952) Bayerischer Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst (1957) Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um das Bayerische Rote Kreuz (1957) Bayerische Staatsmedaille für soziale Verdienste (1970) Ehrenzeichen des bayerischen Ministerpräsidenten (1994) Bayerische Staatsmedaille für Verdienste um Umwelt und Gesundheit (2004) Berlin [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (Berlin) (1953) Verdienstorden des Landes Berlin (1987) Feuerwehr- und Katastrophenschutz-Ehrenzeichen (Berlin) (2000) Dankmedaille Elbehochwasser 2002 (2002) Berliner Ehrennadel (2006) Brandenburg [Bearbeiten] Verdienstorden des Landes Brandenburg (auch Roter Adlerorden) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Brandenburg) Medaille für Treue Dienste in der Freiwilligen Feuerwehr Feuerwehr-Leistungsabzeichen (Brandenburg) Oderflut-Medaille Elbeflut-Medaille Bremen [Bearbeiten] Bremische Ehrenmedaille in Gold Bremische Rettungsmedaille Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft Plakette für hervorragende Leistungen im Sport Hamburg [Bearbeiten] Bürgermeister-Stolten-Medaille Hamburgische Rettungsmedaille Hamburgische Dankmedaille (Sturmflut 1962) Hamburgische Dankmedaille (Elbe-Hochwasserkatastrophe 2002) Hamburgische Dankmedaille (Oder-Flut 1997) Medaille für Treue Arbeit im Dienste des Volkes Portugaleser Verdienstabzeichen der Hamburger Schutzpolizei Hessen [Bearbeiten] Hessischer Verdienstorden Wilhelm-Leuschner-Medaille Hessische Rettungsmedaille Brandschutzehrenzeichen (Hessen) Silberne Ehrennadel zum Ehrenbrief des Landes Hessen Anstecknadel in Silber zur Sportplakette des Landes Hessen Bernhard-Christoph-Faust-Medaille Katastrophenschutz-Medaillen (Hessen) Katastrophenschutz-Verdienstmedaille Hessische Pflegemedaille Goethe-Plakette des Hessischen Kultusministeriums Mecklenburg-Vorpommern [Bearbeiten] Verdienstorden des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Brandschutz-Ehrenzeichen Rettungsmedaille (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Niedersachsen [Bearbeiten] Niedersächsische Rettungsmedaille (1953) Niedersächsische Landesmedaille (1956) Niedersächsischer Verdienstorden Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste im Feuerlöschwesen Gedenkmedaille aus Anlass der Sturmflutkatastrophe 1962 (1962) Gedenkmedaille aus Anlass der Waldbrandkatastrophe im August 1975 (1975) Niedersächsische Sportmedaille (1984) Hochwasser-Medaille 2002 (Niedersachsen) (2002) Niedersächsische Umweltnadel Nordrhein-Westfalen [Bearbeiten] Rettungsmedaille (Nordrhein-Westfalen) (195) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Nordrhein-Westfalen) (1954) Verdienstorden des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (1986) Katastrophenschutz-Ehrenzeichen (Nordrhein-Westfalen) (2005) Rheinland-Pfalz [Bearbeiten] Ehrennadel des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz (1974) Verdienstorden des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz (1981) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Rheinland-Pfalz) (1983) Verdienstmedaille des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz (1996) Feuerwehr-Leistungsabzeichen des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz Saarland [Bearbeiten] Saarländische ettungsmedaille (1959) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Saarland) (1959) Saarländischer Verdienstorden (1974) Freiherr-vom-Stein-Medaille (Saarland) (1989) Katastrophenschutz-Ehrenzeichen (Saarland) (2007) Sachsen [Bearbeiten] Gedenkmedaille aus Anlass der Waldbrandkatastrophe Weißwasser im Mai/Juni 1992 (1992) Sächsischer Verdienstorden (1996) Sächsische Verfassungsmedaille (1997) Johann-Georg-Palitzsch-Medaille (2000) Sächsischer Fluthelferorden (2002) Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen (Sachsen) (2003) Feuerwehr-Leistungsabzeichen für Technische Hilfe (2005) Feuerwehr-Leistungsabzeichen für Löscheinsatz (2005) Sachsen-Anhalt [Bearbeiten] Ehrenstern des Landesfeuerwehrverbandes Sachsen-Anhalt() Bandschnalle Hochwasser Sachsen-Anhalt 1994 (1994) Ehrennadel des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt (2000) Hochwasser-Medaille des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt 2002 (2002) Brandschutz- und Katastrophenschutz-Ehrenzeichen des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt (1) (2005) Rettungsmedaille des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt (2005) Verdienstorden des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt (2006) Schleswig-Holstein [Bearbeiten] Verdienstorden des Landes Schleswig-Holstein Freiherr-vom-Stein-Medaille Rettungsmedaille (Schleswig-Holstein) Schleswig-Holsteinisches Feuerwehr-Ehrenkreuz Brandschutz-Ehrenzeichen (Schleswig-Holstein) Sturmflutmedaille Medaille für Arbeitsjubilare Ehrennadel des Landes Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein-Medaille Fluthilfe-Medaille aus Anlass der Elbehochwassers 2002 Thüringen [Bearbeiten] Brandschutzehrenzeichen (Thüringen) (1992) Rettungsmedaille für Rettung aus Gefahr (Thüringen) (1994) Verdienstorden des Freistaats Thüringen (2000) Von nichtstaatlichen Stellen verliehene Ehrenzeichen [Bearbeiten] Orden Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste Ehrenzeichen des Deutschen Roten Kreuzes Deutsches Feuerwehr-Ehrenkreuz Medaille für Rettung aus Seenot der DGzRS Ehrenzeichen der Deutschen Verkehrswacht (1957) Ehrenzeichen des Johanniterordens Goethe-Medaille Deutsches Sportabzeichen (1, 4) Deutsches Rettungsschwimmabzeichen der DLRG in Silber und Gold (1, 4) Deutsches Rettungsschwimmabzeichen des DRK (Wasserwacht) in Silber und Gold (1, 4)
Estonia & Latvia; Best Universities; ETUR European Top University Ranking; Ranking of the European Universities in the faculties: Liberal Arts & Sciences, University College; Arts & Humanities: Philosophy, Modern Languages, History, Linguistics, Language & Literature. Life Sciences & Medicine: Medicine, Biological Sciences, Psychology, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Agriculture & Forestry. Social Sciences: Statistics & Operational Research, Sociology, Politics & International Studies, Law, Economics & Econometrics, Accounting & Finance, Communication & Media Studies, Education. Engineering & Technology: Computer Science & Information Systems, Chemical Engineering, Civil & Structural Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Mechanical, Aeronautical & Manufacturing Engineering. Natural Sciences: Physics & Astronomy, Mathematics, Environmental Sciences, Earth & Marine Sciences, Chemistry, Material Sciences, Geography
Stephanie Beth Steinhardt – Media and Information, Michigan State University
I am faculty in the Department of Media and Information at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. I am a tech developer-turned-ethnographer interested in the social and ethical consequences of technological development, particularly in building and maintaining large-scale transformational endeavors in the sciences. My research starts at the scientific realities that look somewhat like…
www.tanmoydas.com -- This is a theoretical condensed matter group of Tanmoy Das at Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. My areas of interest are electronic structure calculations of complex materials, strongly correlated systems and topological matters.
Ol Smoky Log Cabins is located on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, which is adjacent to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park;the most visited National Park in America. This part of Western North Carolina offers beautiful scenery with it???s majestic mountains, crystal clear streams and rivers, waterfalls, hiking trails and more.
The Durham Exchange | Life and Adventures of Exchange Students @ Durham University
Hi! I'm Andrea and I come from the University of Limoges in the western part of France. When I arrived in Durham I was both excited and scared, and I guess that's how all big changes in life are supposed to feel like. Now that I've gotten used to my new life here I definitely have…
BalanceHealthClinic.com.auWelcome to BALANCED HEALTH CLINIC, a private Community Mental Healthcare Clinic in Perth, Western Australia
Balanced Health Clinic is a private multidisciplinary Community Mental Healthcare Clinic in Perth, Western Australia where psychological, physical, social and spiritual health remains the services’ priority.
Swing Ann Arbor is a University of Michigan student organization that aims to provide the University community and Southeast Michigan with high-quality swing dance instruction and weekly dances. Swing Ann Arbor is open to everyone regardless of experience or affiliation. You never need a partner to attend any lesson or dance! Every week, we offer…
Serving as an umbrella organization providing education and programs to strengthen the forage industry in Kansas National Affiliations American Forage & Grassland Council National Alfalfa & Forage Alliance Forage Resources Kansas State University Range & Forages National Forage Testing Association Kansas Hay Market Report 2019 NAFA Alfalfa Variety Leaflet Kansas Hay Exchange U.S. Drought Monitor Climate…
Anthony Digmann - Catholic Speaker, Author, and Educator
Enthusiastic, faithful to the Magisterium, and passionately Catholic, Anthony Digmann''s experience engaging Catholic youth and adults combines with theological insight in a way sure to make an impact on your audience. As an author, speaker, educator, and cinematographer, his presentations enrich, motivate, and inspire! Anthony has a Master’s degree in Theology and has appeared internationally on Catholic television and radio, such as EWTN and Radio Maria. He is also an avid Star Wars fan and enjoys highlighting the connections between the films and Catholicism. Contact him today to plan your next event, or search through his resources to find a book, DVD, or CD to meet your needs.
S3RCN | Funded by a grant to the Harvard Forest, Harvard University, from the National Science Foundation
Have you wondered how decision we make today about forests and land use could affect flood protection, wood supply, climate mitigation, economic development and wildlife habitat in New England in the future? The New England Landscape Futures Project of the Landscape Scenarios, Ecosystem Services, and Linkages to Society Research Coordination Network (S3 RCN) seeks to…
National University || Bangladesh - জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়
National University Bangladesh | জাতীয় বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়: Recent NU Notice, NU Result, Admission all information find here - www.nu.edu.bd (nu edu bd result). National University Gazipur all Courses/Program are Bachelor (Honours, Degree Program and Masters) information from www.nu.edu.bd/results.
THE INTERNATIONAL PEOPLES' TRIBUNAL 2015 July 16-18, 2015 Catholic University of America 620 Michigan Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20064 We are human rights defenders, peace and justice advocates, lawyers, jurists, academics, church people, and political activists who have come together to convene the International Peoples Tribunal on Crimes against the Filipino people by President Benigno…
Corso�s has been in business since 1941. Originally a retail greenhouse, it now consists of twelve acres of greenhouse, ten acres of outdoor production, a retail Flower Shop, Garden Center, and Landscape Department. In the mid 1980''s Corso�s began to grow Perennials for our own retail market and for a few wholesale accounts. As the demand for Perennials grew, so did production at Corso�s. Today, we supply garden centers throughout Ohio, Michigan, western Pennsylvania, Indiana, northern Kentucky, and Buffalo, New York. We believe our line of Quart pots, 1 Containers, #8 containers, STEPABLES, and our Herbs, gives us one of the most complete selections in the industry. Along with our selection comes a desire to provide you with the service needed to keep you supplied with top quality perennials and herbs through Spring, Summer and Fall. So feel free to stop by and visit - we�re easy to find and we�ll be happy to show you around.
Philomathia Foundation | Promoting Human Values and Science through Education and Research
The second phase of the interdisciplinary Philomathia Social Sciences Research Programme, a collaboration between the Philomathia Foundation and the University, has been launched to enable further pioneering work in addressing some of the major issues facing humanity today. SUMMARY OF PHASE 1 (2013-2018) Faculty of History (2013/14) Historicising the Measurement of Inequality PI - Dr Pedro Ramos Pinto In my current work I am interested in understanding how contemporary inequalities are shaped by the past, bringing a more long-term view to explain how and why societies distribute resources, opportunities and capabilities. As part of this, I direct a research network on the topic of Inequality and History, which was started by an AHRC grant. Most recently I worked with Dr Poornima Paidipaty on the history of the measurement of inequality, supported by a grant from the Philomathia Trust. During 2018-2019 I will be a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the International Inequalities Institute at the London School of Economics. I am also interested in the history and political economy of welfare. One aspect of this concerns the creation, evolution and implications of authoritarian welfare regimes in Southern Europe and Latin America. This has evolved from earlier work which explored the interaction between the Portuguese Dictatorship and its citizens to explain the emergence of social movements of the urban poor during the Carnation Revolution (1974-1976), a theme which is explored in my book Lisbon Rising (2013).In addition, I continue to have an interest on the study of social movements and protest, both in historical and in contemporary perspective. Fellow- Dr Poornima Paidipaty I hold a PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University as well as an MA from Jawaharlal Nehru University and a BA from Yale University. My academic work focuses on the intersections of decolonization, governance, and modern social science. As part of the Philomathia funded project, 'The Measure of Inequality', I am currently researching the history and legacy of statistics and planning in postcolonial India. Alongside this work, I am completing a book, Tribal Nation, which explores the history of anthropology in the Indian subcontinent and charts the relationship between military science, political culture, and citizenship in India's tribal borderlands. Prior to coming to Cambridge, I was a member of the Society of Fellows at the University of Chicago. In addition to the generous sponsorship through Philomathia, my work has been supported by the Isaac Newton Trust, the British Academy, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, the School for Advanced Research, and the American Institute for Indian Studies. The widening gap between India's rich and poor is captured by the National Sample Survey (NSS), an organization founded in 1950, which gathers data from roughly 14, 000 Indian villages and localities to provide a snapshot of how the population at large is faring. The NSS and its pioneering role in the measurement of poverty and inequality are some of the important subjects to explore how different modern societies have gauged social and economic disparity. As a nation, India is undergoing a profound transformation, but rapid growth has come hand in hand with rising inequality as well as growing disparity between rural and urban areas. NSS data remains one of the best resources for understanding and tracking these changes. As more of this information circulates in the public domain, it becomes all the more crucial to appreciate how such data is produced. Paidipaty's work on the history of the NSS offers a fascinating glimpse into one of the most significant and early mid-century precursors to contemporary developments in big data. Summary of project In July 2017, we held an international research conference at Cambridge University entitled Measuring Matters, which brought together leading scholars in economics, international history, sociology, anthropology and gender studies to examine the history and politics of measuring inequality. In addition to generous funds from the Philomathia Foundation, we were able to raise more than £7, 000 for this event from CRASSH, the Economic History Society and the History Faculty's Ellen McArthur Trust. Our keynote speakers were Alice O'Conner (UCSB) and Sanjay Reddy (New School University). On the final evening of our conference we held a public event that featured Sanjay Reddy in conversation with Ha-Joon Chang (Cambridge) and Omar Khan (Runnymede Trust). The History of Political Economy has accepted our proposal to collect and publish the conference papers as a special issue of their journal. 9 essays from this event have been submitted for peer review (including an article by Dr. Paidipaty). The issue is scheduled for publication in May 2020. It will include an introductory essay by Dr. Ramos Pinto and Dr. Paidipaty, as well as an afterword by Dr. Sanjay Reddy. Dr. Ramos Pinto and Dr. Paidipaty are finalizing plans for a book on the history of inequality, tentatively titled Inequality: A Global History. This work will incorporate many of the insights gleaned from the Measuring Inequality conferences and MPhil course at Cambridge. We are in conversation with both CUP and Princeton about publishing this work, and expect to deliver the finished manuscript by December 2021. Department of Sociology (2013/14) (In)fertility, Education and Reproductive Health PIs – Prof Jacqueline Scott and Prof Sarah Franklin Professor Jacqueline Scott trained at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor where she received her PhD in 1987. She has held a variety of survey related positions before joining the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences (now HSPS) in 1994. Jackie was the Director of the Detroit Area Study, from 1989-1990; and Director of the ESRC Centre on Micro-Social Change, at the University of Essex from 1990-1994, where she was responsible for the initial design and implementation of the British Household Panel Study (now Understanding Society). Jackie was a Guest Professor, Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen (ZUMA). Mannheim, Germany (1993, 2005). From 2004-2010 she was the Director of the ESRC Research Priority Network on Gender Inequalities in Production and Reproduction. This was the largest research multi-disciplinary network of its kind in the UK. Jackie co-ordinated projects across eight British universities that investigated different aspects of the way women and men's roles and lifestyles have changed. The common goal of the Network was to understand why gender inequalities remains one of the most pressing social issues of our time and to identify ways that greater equality may be achieved. Professor Sarah Franklin moved from the London School of Economics to take up the Chair of Sociology at Cambridge in October 2011. In 2012 she received awards from the Wellcome Trust, ESRC, and British Academy to establish the Reproductive Sociology Research Group (ReproSoc) which has since gone on to become one of the leading research centres in the rapidly expanding field of reproductive studies. Fellow – Dr Nitzan Peri-Rotem I hold an undergraduate degree in Sociology and Communication (2005) and a Master's degree in Demography and Anthropology (2009) from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2015, I completed a DPhil in Sociology at Nuffield College, University of Oxford. Before moving to the UK, I gained experience working as Head of Branch for Social Statistical Analyses at the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. In 2014, I was appointed as Philomathia Research Associate at the University of Cambridge until June 2017, when I took the position of a Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Exeter. I continue to collaborate with Professor Franklin and the Reproductive Sociology Research Group in Cambridge on various projects, including the new interdisciplinary research project 'Changing (In)Fertilities', which is funded by the Wellcome Trust and is aimed at exploring how assisted reproductive technologies are changing the ways in which fertility and infertility are perceived and practiced. Summary of project The research project '(In)Fertility, Education and Reproductive Health' explored recent trends in reproductive behaviour in the UK and the rest of Europe amid global demographic, societal and technological developments of the past decades. In particular, the increase in women's education, has been one of the major driving forces of changing fertility patterns, including the ongoing rise in age at first birth. These trends have important implications for population ageing in Europe, as well as for individuals' ability to fulfil their own fertility aspirations. As part of this project, we analysed data from the British Household Panel Survey and the UK Household Longitudinal Study to examine changes in union formation and fertility patterns among men and women in Britain from 1991 to 2012. We found that marriage rates are declining more steeply among individuals with secondary or lower level of education compared to highly educated people, and that childbearing outside a stable union continues to be disproportionately higher among low educated women in Britain. These patterns both reflect and preserve social inequalities, since children growing up in non-intact families tend to have poorer life prospects compared to those living in more stable settings. The findings from this study were presented by Dr Peri-Rotem in several international academic conferences, including the European Sociological Association, Vienna Institute of Demography and the British Society for Population Studies. Apart from the research work on education and fertility, in May 2016, we hosted an international forum in Cambridge on 'Changing Fertility: Social, Demographic and Ethical Consequences of Assisted Reproductive Technologies'. This forum has brought together academic scholars, health professionals and members of non-governmental organizations to discuss the consequences of ART use on fertility patterns in post-industrialized societies. The forum has also formed the basis for a position paper, describing the spread of IVF use across Europe and its potential implications for fertility and public health, as well as recommended policies to address infertility. This paper was presented by Dr Peri-Rotem at the 3rd Annual Philomathia Symposium, as part of an organized session on 'Reproduction in an Era of Bio-Tech Revolution' which was chaired by Professor Sarah Franklin. Department of Politics and International Studies (POLIS) (2014/15) The consequences of the politics of austerity in the EU PI - Helen Thompson I am a Professor of Political Economy. I have been at Cambridge since 1994 and am at present Deputy Head of the School of the Humanities and Social Sciences. I'm a regular panellist on Talking Politics. My present work is focused on the historical origins of the post-2008 economic and political world and the crises it is generating for western countries. More particularly my recent work covers the political economy of oil, Brexit and the euro zone crisis. Fellow – Juan Munoz-Portillo In 2013, I received my PhD in Politics and International Relations from Dublin City University. Prior to moving to Cambridge I was a Post-doctoral Fellow at Dublin City University. Between 2014 and 2017 I worked with Prof Andrew Gamble, Dr Helen Thompson and Dr Pieter van Houten on the project "The consequences of the politics of austerity in the European Union". This project consisted of two parts. The first stage documented and analysed the specific ways in which states in the EU have implemented fiscal austerity programs. The second stage analysed various social and political consequences of the politics of austerity. My research interests lie in comparative political economy and international political economy, in particular, but not solely, electoral systems and the behaviour of legislators, the influence of political institutions on public spending, and politics and sovereign debt. After leaving the University of Cambridge in September 2017, I returned to Costa Rica, where I worked during one year as an adjunct staff member of the School of Political Science of the University of Costa Rica. During that time I also worked as a consultant for the Latin American Faculty of the Social Sciences (FLACSO) and the Latin American Office of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. I have been recently appointed, in January 2019, lecturer of International Politics at the School of Political Science of the University of Costa Rica. I expect to continue my research on fiscal austerity policies in the European Union. I also aim to apply my understanding of fiscal austerity policies developed during the course of the Philomathia project to the Latin American context, using the methodology myself and my principal supervisor in Cambridge applied. Summary of project The project 'The consequences of the politics of austerity in the European Union' officially terminated on 30 September 2017. During this time two papers were prepared and two international conferences were attended. At the time of writing, Pieter van Houten, one of the principal investigators, is engaged in leading collaborative papers arising from the project. We expect to get them published in the near future. In our Report of activities 2015 – 2016 we reported that we decided to adopt a narrative approach for our analysis of austerity policies in EU member states. A narrative method consists of the study of official records and sometimes news, based on theoretically defined criteria, seeking to identify policy decisions that are motivated by the intentions of authorities to reduce deficits and public debt, and not by other confounding factors. In other words, it is a way of isolating the effect of fiscal consolidation decisions from other variables that might simultaneously be having an influence on changes in public revenues and expenditures. They presented this paper at the 7th Annual Conference of the European Political Science Association, held in Milan on 22–24 June 2017. Juan and Pieter, with the support of the Philomathia Programme, organised the panel 'Comparative Approaches to the Study of Causes and Consequences of Fiscal Austerity Policies in the European Union' that was presented at the Council of European Studies' 24th International Conference of Europeanists, held in Glasgow on 12-14 July 2017. Prof Klaus Armingeon of the University of Bern and Prof Stefano Sacchi of the University of Milan, presented the paper 'Austerity. Where and Why Politics Still Matters' at this panel. Dr Michael Breen (Dublin City University) gave the paper 'Daily Judgement: Political News and Financial Markets'. Also in this panel Juan and Pieter presented their work 'Explaining the Magnitude and Composition of Fiscal Austerity Episodes in the European Union.' Each of these papers was discussed by Prof Sebastian Dellepiane-Avellaneda of the University of Glasgow. All of the presenters and the discussant have published their research on austerity policies in Europe in important political science journals (Armingeon 2012; McMenamin, Breen, and Muñoz-Portillo 2015; Dellepiane-Avellaneda and Hardiman 2014) Faculty of Law (2015/16) The Law of Energy Transitions PI – Prof Jorge Vinuales I hold the Harold Samuel Chair of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge and is the founder and former Director of the Cambridge Centre for Environment, Energy and Natural Resource Governance (C-EENRG). I'm also the Chairman of the Compliance Committee of the UN-ECE/WHO-Europe Protocol on Water and Health, a member of the Panel of Arbitrators of the Shanghai International Arbitration Centre and the Director-General of the Latin American Society of International Law. Prior to joining Cambridge, I was the Pictet Chair of International Environmental Law at the Graduate Institute, Geneva, where I keep a limited affiliation as Adjunct Professor of Public International Law. I have a wide experience as a practitioner, both in an advisory and a litigation context. I was associate, counsel and of counsel with two major law firms specialised in international law for a decade. In addition to this work for the UNECE/WHO, I have served as arbitrator, counsel, expert and, earlier in my career, as secretary of arbitration tribunals in inter-State, investment and commercial disputes. I regularly advise governments, companies, international organisations or major NGOs on different matters of environmental law, investment law, human rights, maritime delimitation and public international law at large. Fellow – Dr Leslie-Anne Duvic-Paoli I am a Lecturer at The Dickson Poon School of Law. Before joining King's College London in August 2017, I was Philomathia Post-doctoral Research Associate in the Department of Land Economy at the University of Cambridge. I am a public international lawyer, with expertise in international environmental law and climate and energy law. I am particularly interested in understanding the nature and content of its principles: her monograph, entitled The Prevention Principle in International Environmental Law, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2018. A recording of the book launch event held at King's in October 2018 is available here. My research also looks at the energy transition to a low-carbon economy from an international and comparative law perspective. I work on the global legal implications of energy democratisation and the importance of participatory mechanisms in the design of inclusive energy systems. In addition, I'm starting a new research agenda on the 'water-energy-food' nexus in global governance: it investigates the gap between, on the one hand, its increasing relevance as a theoretical concept describing the interconnections between complex systems and presented as a solution to foster sustainable development; and, on the other hand, the limited interactions between specialized international legal regimes. I hold Master's degrees in international relations / political science from Sciences Po Paris and in public law from the University of Panthéon-Sorbonne, and a PhD (summa cum laude) in international law from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. Summary of project The PI brought a visiting Postdoctoral Research Associate (PDRA), Dr Tibisay Morgandi, supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, whose research was closely aligned with the subject of the Project and was further supported with a small grant from the Philomathia Foundation to build a database. Dr Morgandi was also able to secure a permanent position (a Lectureship) in the University of London (Queen Mary) starting in September 2018, largely due to her involvement in the activities on global energy governance emerging from the project. This is another indication of the success of the Project in launching the career of aspiring academics. The PI secured a small grant from the Cambridge Humanities Research Grants Scheme to hire a part-time PDRA, Dr Maria Augusta Paim, to complete some of the data collection work initially envisioned for the third year of the Project. This work is still ongoing. In addition to launching the career of aspiring academics, the Project resulted (1) in a stream of important publications on energy governance, (2) in the organization of several events, including two high-profile ones, and (3) in some enduring extensions in the form of a Platform and Research Network, a Database on bilateral energy agreements, and subsequent research projects. Department of Land Economy (2015/16) Realising Genomic Medicine PI – Dr Kathy Liddell I undertook my doctorate in law at the University of Oxford focussing on the regulation of controversial genetic technologies in morally pluralist societies. In addition to substantial experience in academia, I worked in private legal practice and in public sector legal services for a health department. This work history has provided me with a solid knowledge of commercial realities and needs, as well as experience in legal policymaking. I have degrees in law and science from the University of Melbourne and bioethics from Monash University, and is a strong advocate of interdisciplinary research. My research focuses on health, medicine and society, with the aim of understanding and improving the legal frameworks that govern and support innovation in this field. A key theme in my research is to examine ways in which intellectual property rights help and hinder the translation of medical discoveries into effective, affordable clinical treatments and diagnoses, and how such frameworks could be modified to be more effective and just. Currently, I'm involved with an international collaboration which aims to investigate intellectual property law in five areas of bioinnovation: (i) repurposing pharmaceuticals; (ii) antibiotics; (iii) biologics; (iv) rare diseases; and (v) machine-learning based precision medicine. Fellow – Dr John Liddicoat I was the Philomathia Research Associate in Law at the University of Cambridge. I was working on a research project analysing intellectual property issues that interface with the realisation of genomic medicine. My research was funded by the Wellcome Trust, Cambridge University and the Philomathia Foundation. I adopt a variety of research methodologies including doctrinal legal research and established empirical methods, as well as developing new, science-inspired quantitative methods. The Philomathia project was very beneficial for my career and the development of the Centre for Law, Medicine and Life Sciences (LML). The Centre was established just prior to the commencement of the Philomathia project, and is now collaborating with an elite group of research centres on a range of topics. At the conclusion of the Philomathia Fellowship, I began a new position on 30 November 2018 as a Senior Research Associate with the Law Faculty at the University of Cambridge. This is a more senior role and is part of a large international research collaboration between Cambridge University, Harvard University, Copenhagen University and Michigan University. The collaboration is led by Professor Timo Minssen at the University of Copenhagen, who was inspired to work with LML after seeing its work on the Philomathia project. Furthermore, many of the lines of enquiry which commenced with the Philomathia project continue to be pursued in the international collaboration. Alongside the collaborative research, I also continued some independent research. Notably I published several articles based on my PhD thesis, and co-authored work with colleagues around the world. I have had the opportunity to travel to Hong Kong during my tenure as Philomathia Fellow. Together with colleagues from the LML, I was the guest of Professor Terry Kaan at the Centre for Medical Ethics and Law, HKU, Dr Anthony Ng (WYNG Foundation) and Dr Ron Zimmern (Hatton Trust). This was a terrific trip, and a good opportunity for our Philomathia research team to present its research results in Hong Kong. Summary of project Genomic medicine is an emerging discipline that involves using genetic information about a patient as part of their clinical care. Since the sequencing of the human genome, a key goal has been to make genomic medicine an everyday reality. However, scientific research that recognises a correlation between genetic make-up and a future health outcome is not enough. Considerably more research is necessary to understand how genes, drugs and other environmental factors work together, and how they work in particular individuals. This research involves complex and high-powered data analysis, and resource-intensive translation into effective molecular test and drug-test combinations. It is a multi-faceted challenge with scientific, regulatory, legal, ethical and financial aspects. In this project we were investigating two topics in which intellectual property (IP) laws support, and potentially hinder, the realisation of clinically-useful genomic developments. Overall, the project has been successful beyond our expectations. We have published (or have in review) nine peer-reviewed articles, three in Nature Biotechnology, and several more to be submitted for publication shortly. We've also organised six symposia or workshops, advised government on several issues tied to our project, and obtained seven grants (totalling around £66, 000). In summary, the Philomathia Fellowship provided an inspiring and productive three years for our research, collaboration, centre development, and engagement in broader society. We are most grateful to the Philomathia Foundation for making it all possible. Phase 2 (2018-23) Department of Geography (2018-21) PI – Dr Bhaskar Vira My research interests centre on the changing political economy of environment and development, especially in South Asia; with a particular interest in the political ecology of forests, water, food, wildlife and landuse change and the social and political context for biodiversity conservation. I am concerned, in particular, with the often-hidden costs of environmental and developmental processes, and the need for scholarship to draw attention to the distributional consequences of public policy choices. My work focuses on the ways in which large-scale economic, societal and environmental transformations are governed, the values that frame how human societies engage with each other and with nature, and the networks of formal and informal institutions that are intertwined in everyday decision making across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. I apply a critical political economy perspective to contemporary debates in relation to ecosystem services and natural capital, and the values of nature for human wellbeing. I have led large scale intellectual and policy-oriented projects that involve interdisciplinary conversations across the natural and social sciences. Trained as an economist, but with a portfolio of research that now engages across the critical social sciences and their interface with the biological and environmental natural sciences, I inhabit the interdisciplinary intellectual 'borderlands' of a number of disciplines (Human Geography, Development Studies, Institutional Economics, Environmental Studies and Conservation), while being firmly rooted in the political economy tradition. Fellow – Dr Katarzyna Cieslik I am a postdoctoral research associate at the Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, specializing in Development Studies. My research focuses on the interactions among society, policy and environment, and their implications for sustainable development in the Global South. In particular, I'm interested in agency, entrepreneurship and civic potency of individuals in addressing the pressing development challenges related to sustainable livelihoods. I have recently completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Wageningen University and hold a PhD in Development Economics and Management from the Université libre de Bruxelles. I have conducted research in Ethiopia, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Colombia and Burundi. I've published on topics ranging from microfinance and entrepreneurship to social economy and development policy in World Development, Oxford Development Studies Journal and European Journal for Development Research. My research is highly practice-oriented; I have cooperated with UNICEF Burundi Innovation Lab agencies as well as a number of local NGOs in South America (CONDESAN, AGAPE) and Asia (Practical Action, Mountain Societies Research Institute). Summary of project Dr. Cieslik's work at Cambridge, together with Professor Bhaskar Vira and Dame Barbara Stocking, focuses on youth and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particular focus on public policy challenges for employment creation. The persistent rise in youth populations Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to continue until at least 2100. Developing locally and nationally appropriate employment policies and interventions is a key public policy challenge across the continent. Department of Social Anthropology (2018-21) PI – Dr Perveez Mody I have conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Delhi, and specifically in a District court, where I looked at the legal and informal processes whereby couples legitimate their love through marriage. I am interested in anthropological theories about the constitution of castes and "communities" in India, the history of civil marriage law from the colonial into the post-colonial period, the politics of religious nationalism, changes in South Asian kinship, marriage and urban sexuality (sexual relations, conjugality, gender and the family), law and human rights and the ways in which the modern state transforms and bears witness to intimate relations such as those expressed in a love-marriage. My current work concerns an ethnography of South Asian marriage and kinship amongst two ethno-religious groups in East London. Fellow – Dr Maria Ignacia Arteaga Perez I graduated from Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile with a BA (Hons.) in Sociology and came to the UK to pursue postgraduate studies in Social Anthropology. I hold an MSc. in Medical Anthropology (2014) and a PhD in Anthropology (2018) from University College London. My main research interest is in caregiving — its practices, possibilities and limits in different institutions and political economies. I explore this theme ethnographically. In the last seven years, I have looked at experiences of ageing, youth, disability and life-threatening medical conditions cross-culturally. My PhD thesis examined the everyday lives of colorectal cancer treatments in London (UK) through an analysis of the caregiving practices that both structure the treatment pathway and afford research participants the possibility of 'getting on with life'. I am currently a teaching associate and affiliated lecturer in the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cambridge. Alongside my teaching role, I am preparing research outputs in the form of peer-reviewed papers, a special issue, and a book manuscript based on my doctoral research, also co-organising a multidisciplinary workshop on practices of disease stratification. Summary of project From July 2019, I will be working with Dr Maryon McDonald and Dr Perveez Mody on a project related to the early detection of cancer in the UK, undertaking ethnographic research within a broad field that concerns the development of diagnostic technologies through to their clinical use and social effects.
The African Diaspora Forum (ADF) learnt with shock and utter dismay that people are being sold as slaves in Libya. “I salute the people of Zimbabwe for achieving such a great goal without spilling blood or burning buildings. South Africans can learn a lot from this, ” Letlhake said.
University Health Network (UHN) is a research hospital affiliated with the University of Toronto and a member of the Toronto Academic Health Science Network. The scope of research and complexity of cases at UHN have made it a national and international source for discovery, education and patient care.
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April 12, 1963 We the undersigned clergymen are among those who in January, issued "An Appeal forLaw and Order and Common Sense, " in dealing with racial problems in Alabama. We expressed understanding that honest convictions in racial matters could properly be pursued in the courts but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. Since that time there had been some evidence of increased forbearance and a willingness to face facts. Responsible citizens have undertaken to work on various problems which caused racial friction and unrest. In Birmingham, recent public events have given indication that we all have opportunity for a new constructive and realistic approach to racial problems. However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized. But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely. We agree rather with certain local Negro leadership which has called for honest and open negotiation of racial issues in our area. And we believe this kind of facing of issues can best be accomplished by citizens of our own metropolitan area white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge and experience of the local situation. All of us need to face that responsibility and find proper channels for its accomplishment. Just as we formerly pointed out that "hatred and violence have no sanction in our religious and political tradition." We also point out that such actions as incite to hatred and violence, however technically peaceful those actions may be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems. We do not believe that these days of new hope are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham. We commend the community as a whole and the local news media and law enforcement officials in particular, on the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled. We urge the public to continue to show restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law enforcement officials to remain calm and continue to protect our city from violence. We further strongly urge our own Negro community to withdraw support from these demonstrations, and to unite locally in working peacefully for a better Birmingham.When rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles of law and order and common sense. Signed by: C. C. J. CARPENTER, D.D., LL.D. Bishop of Alabama JOSEPH A. DURICK, D.D. Auxiliary Bishop. Diocese of Mobile-Birmingham Rabbi HILTON J. GRAFMAN, Temple Emmanu-El, Birmingham, Alabama Bishop PAUL HARDIN, Bishop of the Alabama-West Florida Conference of theMethodist Church. Bishop HOLAN B. HARMON, Bishop of the North Alabama Conference of theMethodist Church GEORGE M. MURRAY, Bishop Coadjutor, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama EDWARD V. RAMSAGE, Moderator, Synod of the Alabama Presbyterian Church in theUnited States EARL STALLINGS, Pastor, First Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama. . . Martin Luther King Jr wrote a letter responding from a Birmingham Jail . . 16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birmingham's economic community. In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As the weeks and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of a broken promise. A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained. As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative except to prepare for direct action, whereby we would present our very bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the local and the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to undertake a process of self purification. We began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: "Are you able to accept blows without retaliating?" "Are you able to endure the ordeal of jail?" We decided to schedule our direct action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the by product of direct action, we felt that this would be the best time to bring pressure to bear on the merchants for the needed change. Then it occurred to us that Birmingham's mayoral election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to postpone action until after election day. When we discovered that the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene "Bull" Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run off, we decided again to postpone action until the day after the run off so that the demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct action program could be delayed no longer. You may well ask: "Why direct action? Why sit ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path?" You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolent resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word "tension." I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood. The purpose of our direct action program is to create a situation so crisis packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked: "Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act?" The only answer that I can give to this query is that the new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was "well timed" in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost always meant "Never." We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice too long delayed is justice denied." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, "Wait." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: "Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?"; when you take a cross county drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading "white" and "colored"; when your first name becomes "nigger, " your middle name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your last name becomes "John, " and your wife and mother are never given the respected title "Mrs."; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of "nobodiness"--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. One may well ask: "How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?" The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all." Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an "I it" relationship for an "I thou" relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of man's tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal." It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season." Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: "All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth." Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. Now is the time to lift our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of complacency, made up in part of Negroes who, as a result of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of "somebodiness" that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible "devil." I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the "do nothingism" of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as "rabble rousers" and "outside agitators" those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies--a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice. If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides -and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. So I have not said to my people: "Get rid of your discontent." Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love: "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you." Was not Amos an extremist for justice: "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever flowing stream." Was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel: "I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus." Was not Martin Luther an extremist: "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God." And John Bunyan: "I will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience." And Abraham Lincoln: "This nation cannot survive half slave and half free." And Thomas Jefferson: "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal . . ." So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on Calvary's hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime--the crime of extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social revolution and committed themselves to it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they are big in quality. Some -such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden and Sarah Patton Boyle--have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as "dirty nigger-lovers." Unlike so many of their moderate brothers and sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the moment and sensed the need for powerful "action" antidotes to combat the disease of segregation. Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis. I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church. I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen. When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by the white church. I felt that the white ministers, priests and rabbis of the South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained glass windows. In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. But again I have been disappointed. I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I have longed to hear white ministers declare: "Follow this decree because integration is morally right and because the Negro is your brother." In the midst of blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white churchmen stand on the sideline and mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities. In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: "Those are social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern." And I have watched many churches commit themselves to a completely other worldly religion which makes a strange, un-Biblical distinction between body and soul, between the sacred and the secular. I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi and all the other southern states. On sweltering summer days and crisp autumn mornings I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the impressive outlines of her massive religious education buildings. Over and over I have found myself asking: "What kind of people worship here? Who is their God? Where were their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of interposition and nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to rise from the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of creative protest?" Yes, these questions are still in my mind. In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church. But be assured that my tears have been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the rather unique position of being the son, the grandson and the great grandson of preachers. Yes, I see the church as the body of Christ. But, oh! How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and through fear of being nonconformists. There was a time when the church was very powerful--in the time when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of popular opinion; it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and immediately sought to convict the Christians for being "disturbers of the peace" and "outside agitators."' But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were "a colony of heaven, " called to obey God rather than man. Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too God-intoxicated to be "astronomically intimidated." By their effort and example they brought an end to such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests. Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo. Far from being disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average community is consoled by the church's silent--and often even vocal--sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today's church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned into outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the world. But again I am thankful to God that some noble souls from the ranks of organized religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom. They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. They have gone down the highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers. But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant. Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment. I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive hour. But even if the church does not come to the aid of justice, I have no despair about the future. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with America's destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched the majestic words of the Declaration of Independence across the pages of history, we were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation -and yet out of a bottomless vitality they continued to thrive and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence." I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham police department. It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in handling the demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather "nonviolently" in public. But for what purpose? To preserve the evil system of segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As T. S. Eliot has said: "The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason." I wish you had commended the Negro sit inners and demonstrators of Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to suffer and their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation. One day the South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with the noble sense of purpose that enables them to face jeering and hostile mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the pioneer. They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized in a seventy two year old woman in Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to ride segregated buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to one who inquired about her weariness: "My feets is tired, but my soul is at rest." They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience' sake. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judaeo Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Never before have I written so long a letter. I'm afraid it is much too long to take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty. Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood, Martin Luther King, Jr.
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David Dashiell, Photographer I am a professional photographer offering a full range of services in Western New England/Eastern New York from my base in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. I am particularly interested in working for small and medium-sized museums, and for architects and interior designers. My services include architectural, portrait, product, and event photography. I am a 2010 graduate of the Hallmark Institute of Photography in Turners Fall, MA, which I attended after a 25-year career in the museum field. I have a Master of Architectural History degree from the University of Virginia, and have worked for several Philadelphia institutions, including the Powel House, an 18th-century historic house museum, where I served as Site Manager, and The Wagner Free Institute of Science, a 19th-century natural history museum, where I was Assistant Director. I have lived in the Berkshires in Western Massachusetts since 2001, and have served as Director of the Bidwell House Museum in Monterey, and Publications Director and Staff Photographer for The Mount, Edith Wharton’s 1902 estate and gardens in Lenox. My photographs have appeared in numerous books and publications, including: Books - Teresita Fernandez: As Above So Below, (Exhibit catalog, MASS MoCA, 2014), French Chic: The Art of Decorating Houses by Florence de Dampierre (Rizzoli, 2008), Inspirational Gardens by Pamela Westland (AA Publishing, 2008), Novel Destinations by Shannon McKenna Schmidt and Jodi Rendon (Random House, 2008) Magazines, Newspapers and Other Publications - AARP Magazine, Architectural Digest (German Edition), Beautiful Homes, Berkshire Business Quarterly, The Berkshire Eagle, Berkshire Living, Berkshires Magazine, Berkshires Week (2 covers), Bloomberg.com, Dance Magazine, Departures (American Express card member magazine), Departures (Russian edition), Horticulture, The Independent (London), Museum, National Trust for Historic Preservation 2007 Calendar, New England Home, Old House Interiors, Passport (Litchfield County Times magazine), Traditional Home, Veranda, Women’s Times. Contact: [email protected] (413) 443-1194
Spirit Reins Ranch | Horseback riding in Parrsboro Nova Scotia
Spirit Reins Ranch is a small farm located near the picturesque coastal town of Parrsboro, Nova Scotia. We offer personalized service for both the first time rider and more experienced riders. Take advantage of our scenic trail rides where the view is breathtaking in every direction! We also have trail riding packages including tidal floor fossil tours, picnic rides and Bay of Fundy beach walks. Summer Horse camps are available for children, and the Ranch hosts a variety of shows and competitions throughout the year. Sign up for western lessons, lease one of our horses or board your own horse, you can also book our facilities for your riding pleasure. You and your whole family will enjoy taking part in our leisurely trail riding experience. Amazing horseback riding tours and adventures are just minutes away. Trail riding at it best, here in Parrsboro, Nova Scotia! Spirit Reins Ranch is located just outside the charming town of Parrsboro which has many amenities available. While you're here you may want to check out the downtown shopping district, local restaurants, museums, hiking trails, live theatre, golf club and of course the highest tides in the world at the local beaches! The Ranch is approximately: an hour and a half from Moncton, New Brunswick. forty five minutes from Amherst, Nova Scotia an hour and a half from Truro, Nova Scotia two hours from Halifax, Nova Scotia Due to the nature of our business we cannot accept drop-ins. Call now for reservations: 1 902 254 3138 or 1 902 254 4268 About Us Spirit Reins Ranch is situated on what was originally a family farm. The Gilbert family acquired the farm in New Prospect, Parrsboro around 1964, and it became a cattle and pig farm for the next 20 years. Today Bill, Karen Gilbert and family continue the legacy with their horse ranch. Bill Gilbert grew up on his family farm riding horses and wrangling cows, his first horse King was a paint trick pony. Bill and King had a great partnership from the start! He even took King in the town parade when he was only 7 years old. Bill has the farm way of life in his blood and still works and develops the land that was his childhood home. Bill renewed his love of horses in adulthood and rides his quarter horse Jasper. He has done clinics on cattle penning, western riding and develops his riding skills through lessons and training. Bill is currently the head guide for our trails and he has been called a real cowboy character who is sure to bend your ear with a few tails or a local yarn or two. Karen Yorke-Gilbert's first experience around horses was at a young age riding the work horses at her aunt's farm in the Annapolis Valley. In her youth Karen spent many hours attending races at the Truro Raceway where her uncle raced standardbreds. It wasn't until she had a family of her own that she became fully involved with and renewed her childhood love of horses. Karen has remained committed to a vision that horses are a learning and growing tool for the spirit of humanity. She firmly believes that horses are teachers and healers for people, and are therapy for the soul. Over the past 15 years Karen has devoted her time to the development of her own horse ranch in her hometown of Parrsboro. The year 2000 marked the beginning's of the ranch as it is today. A humble 4 stall barn housed two very special horses, a gentle thoroughbred named Chief (belonging to her daughter) and Karen's quarter horse Ginger. Today Spirit Reins Ranch has grown to a family of 8+ horses, a large barn with 13 stalls, heated tack room and a large outdoor riding arena. In order to provide the best quality services and optimal care for the horses Karen has devoted herself to equine education, spending years under the tutelage of top instructors in Western Reining and equitation. She has completed her Level 4 in the Western Rider Equine Canada program. Karen has certificates in Equine Canada Coaching Theory as well as First Aid training, and has recently completed the Equine Canada Trail Guide and Tourism Program. Karen holds an Honours degree in Psychology from Mount Allison University, Sackville New Brunswick. Karen is a current member of the Nova Scotia Equestrian Federation, Equine Canada. She is the Director at Large of the Canadian Horse Association (Atlantic District) and the Canadian Horse National Breeders Association. She enjoys riding and showing her Canadian mare Willow. She has participated in many shows and competitions in western classes, trail class, reining and cattle sorting and penning.
Aowen Jin is a leading Chinese-born British artist, based in London. Bringing a brilliant fusion of Chinese contemporary culture and Western ideology, Aowen's artworks are award winning and critically acclaimed.
Alan McNiel, contemporary oil painting, western landscape, Yellowstone Art Museum, La Quinta Arts Festival, Sausalito Art Festival, Montana Triennial 2012, Missoula Art Museum, Holter Art Museum, Paris Gibson Square Museum of Art, Hockaday Art Museum, Museum of Art and Culture - Spokane, Washington, urban landscape painting, mixed-media painting, contemporary realism, University of Washington Medical Center, Whimsical Paintings, Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Pablo Picasso, San Francisco, Seattle, Portland, Palm Springs, Sausalito, Yaak Valley of NW Montana
Haute Jewelry Concepts is a manufacturer Wholesale Jeweler and your direct source for wholesale fashion jewelry, costume wholesale jewelry, rings, bracelets, necklaces, watches, earrings, keychains, and displays
Dr. Wu received his undergraduate from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan, M.S. degree from the Pennsylvania State University and his doctorate of dental medicine D.M.D. from the Case Western Reserve University, School of Dentistry. He currently resides in Solon with his wife, Annie, and daughter, Alice, who is the apple his eyes. Alice is considering becoming an orthodontist when she grows up to follow her dad''s dental footsteps.