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CFA Institute. CFA Institute is a global association of investment professionals. The organization offers the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation, the Certificate in Investment Performance Measurement (CIPM) designation, and the Investment Foundations Certificate.
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Royal Quinoa Designation of Origin Bolivia - DO Quinoa Real - Home. Welcome to the Royal Quinoa Designation of Origin (DO) homepage. Here you will find all the relevant information about our beautiful product “Royal Quinoa”.
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NAR''s Green Designation: Green Real Estate Education
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QuestMasters Online Museum Home Page. Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. Webpage Header: WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts German 1940 10,5cm LFH18 - Light Field Howitzer 18 Germany 10,5cm le FH 18 leichte Feldhaubitze 18 Fried Krupp Essen 1940 Light Field Howitzer 105mm Steven Spielberg HBO mini-series Band Of Brothers Easy Company E Company 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment 506 PIR 101st Airborne Division World War Two Lt Spears D Company 506th PIR Episode 2 Day of Days QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 52712 - Jeep 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 12 August 1942 Serial Number 52712 Hood Number 20137713 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Ford GPW ¼ Ton Truck 69289 - Jeep - Page 2 Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model GPW Manufacturer Ford Motor Company Date of Delivery 30 September 1942 Serial Number 69289 Hood Number 20154290 Daimler Benz Gaggenau 1945 QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted United States Dodge ¾ Ton Truck WC-54 Ambulance 713293 Type 3/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G502 Model WC-54 Ambulance Dodge Model T-214 Manufacturer Dodge Motor Company Date of Delivery November 1942 Serial Number 81560003 Hood Number 713293 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 241969 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 241969 Hood Number 20342091 WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Willys MB ¼ Ton Truck 277074 - Jeep Type 1/4 Ton 4x4 Truck Government Number G503 Model MB Manufacturer Willys Overland Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number: 277074 Hood Number WWII World War Two QuestMasters Quest Masters Museum Restoration Wanted Parts United States Studebaker T-24 Weasel Serial Number 991 Cargo Carrier Light Government Number G179 Model T-24 Weasel Studebaker Motor Company Date of Delivery 1943 Serial Number 991Registration Number prototype M-29 1942 M-29C BARGE WITH A CHARGE command vehicle HQ27 146th Engineer Combat Battalion ECB 1st Army Special Engineer Task Force Omaha Beach 1st Infantry Division June 6th 1944 H+03 hour United States 1 Ton “Ben Hur” Trailer G-518 Type Trailer 2 Wheel 1 Ton Cargo Government Number G-518 Untied States Checker Cab CC-1B 1 Ton 250 Gallon Water Trailer G-527 Type Trailer 1 Ton 2 Wheel Tank Water 250 Gallon Government Number G-527 Model: CC-1B Manufacturer Checker Cab Company Date of Delivery March 8th 1943 Serial Number 2709 U.S.A. Number Registration Number 0294301 Parts Manual TM 10-1395 Maintenance Manual TM 10-1395 United States Army Infantry Rifleman 29th Infantry Division Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 German 2cm FLAK 38 German Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Model Flug Abwehr Kanone 38 Manufacturer 1944 Sonderanhanger 51 Ammunition Boxes Crates German 2cm FLAK Ammunition box (left photo). This box is the early war style with metal end handles and painted ordnance tan. The partially obscured marking are "2cm Patr (Tr.)" which is for "2cm Patronen Tropen" (2cm Ammunition Tropical). This ammunition box was specifically packed for use in tropical climates.The 2cm FLAK Ammunition box in the right photo is also packaged for tropical use. Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Yellow (gelb) Tracer (L''spur), left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur) Tropical (Tp) in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Armor Piercing (Panzergranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) self destroying (red Z) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe) left photo.Ammunition box label for 2cm High Explosive (Sprenggranat) Ammunition (Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Brand) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprenggranatpatronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), left photo. Note very late 1945 production date.Ammunition box label for 2cm Incendiary (Br.) High Explosive Ammunition (Sprgr-Patronen) with Red (rot) Tracer (L''spur), in steel shell casings (blue vertical stripe), right photo. External ammunition box stenciling: Luftwaffen-Munition (Air Force Ammunition), left photo. Heeres-Munition (Army Ammunition), right photo. Equipment and ammunition was procured independently via separate contracts within the German Wehrmacht or Armed Forces during World War Two. Equipment and ammunition was specifically marked for the branch of service that it was ordered. It was not uncommon though to find supplies re-routed due to wartime shortages, United States Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Italy December 1943 U.S. Army Infantry Officer 36th Infantry Division San Pietro - Liri Valley, Italy December 1943 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 United States Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 U.S. Army Air Force Heavy Bomber Pilot Western Europe 1944 QuestMasters Aircraft United States Country United States Type: B-24J Heavy Bomber Manufacturer Consolidated Factory San Diego, Ca.Year 1944 Serial Number:B-24J-155-C0 44-40332 Country United States Type SNJ Advanced Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer North American Factory: Unknown Year 1944 Serial Number SNJ-5B 84947 Country United States Type LNE-1 Glider Trainer (Navy) Manufacturer Pratt Read Factory Deep River, Connecticut Year 1943 Serial Number LNE-1 31556 Country: United States Type UC-45F Cargo Aircraft (AAF) Manufacturer Beechcraft Factory Not Available Year 1943 Serial Number UC-45F 43-35764 Country United States / Canada Type PT-26A Primary Trainer (AAF) Cornell II (RCAF) Manufacturer Fleet Factory Ontario, Canada Year 1943 Serial Number: PT-26A 42-71104 Country United States Type CG-15A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Waco Factory Not Available Year 1944/1945 Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type CG-4A Glider (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available Country United States Type P-61 Night Fighter (AAF) Manufacturer Not Available Factory Not Available Year Not Available Serial Number Not Available QuestMasters Aircraft Archeology U.S. Army/USMC Curtis A25-A (SB2C-1A "Helldiver")This is quite an unusual find. This rare aircraft started its life as a United States Navy SB2C "Helldiver". During the Second World War the Army ordered 900 "Helldivers" and renamed them A25-A. The U.S. Army later transferred the aircraft to the USMC and renamed the SB2C-1A. The history of this aircraft is unknown. The aircraft is seen (recovered from Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii) in an overall olive green paint scheme with grey undersides. It is interesting to note that two U.S. insignia are painted on the sides of the aircraft (this is due to war time repainting at different periods - exposure to the elements have uncovered both insignia). U.S. Army B-17F "Flying Fortress" named "LOS LOBOS".This is the starboard side of the nose section. Under "LOS LOBOS" is also painted "ROVER BOY". The history of this aircraft is uknown. U.S. Army B24D-13-CO-41-23938This aircraft is believed to be a Consolidated B-24D Liberator due to the fact that it crashed near several other B-24D Liberators of the same or near serial number. This aircraft was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. The photo depicts the forward starboard section of a B-24 Liberator painted in olive drab with the number 938 stenciled in yellow below the navigators window. This section of the B-24 has been recovered for the QuestMasters Museum for preservation. Any further information on this aircraft would be greatly appreciated. U.S. Army B24J-155-CO-44-40332This Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found in February 1993 in Aiea, Hawaii. Built in March 1944, "44-40332" crashed on May 5th, 1944 due to an on-board fuel problem. "332" was on her maiden voyage from California for final assignment to the 5th A.A.F. in Australia. All ten crew members were killed on impact having never seen a day of combat. Upon impact, "332" burst into flames nearly destroying the entire aircraft. "332" did not carry any unit markings, or nose art. Today only "332''s" right and left wing with wheels, four engines, tail turret, and many small parts remain on the impact site. The Nose section, from the cockpit forward, and the Martin 250 upper turret have been recovered for restoration in the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24J-80-CO-42-10021XThis Consolidated B-24J Liberator was found near Wheeler Army Air Force Base, January 1996, in Hawaii. Very little is known of the history of this B-24. Only part of the tail was found, as seen in this photo. No fire damage was found on the remains at the crash site. This was an early B-24J as noted by the olive-green paint that remained on the vertical stabilizer. Later B-24 Liberators were unpainted to save both materials and total aircraft weight (approximately 1000 pounds). The serial number was found to be partly obscured, so the last digit is represented by an "X". The only unit markings found on the aircraft were four horizontal lines on the vertical stabilizer. Due to extensive corrosion only the serial number section was recovered for preservation at the QuestMasters Museum. U.S. Army B24D-10-CO-41-23901This Consolidated B-24D Liberator was found on the Wailua Sugar Cane Plantation near Waimea Falls, 1994, in Hawaii. This aircraft crashed March 1942 during a routine coastal patrol of the Hawaiian coast. Three of her eight man crew died in the crash. Official Army Air Force reports concluded that the aircraft was on final approach when fuel ran out and the pilot ditched the aircraft in a sugar cane field. The aircraft remains today in a very sorry state. The aircraft was stripped in the late 1980''s for aluminum scrap, but many pieces remain on the crash site. Due to the lack of fuel on-board the aircraft, very little fire damage to the aircraft is present. The aircraft was painted in an overall olive drab paint scheme with "early" wartime U.S. insignia. Several small pieces were recovered for the QuestMasters Museum including the port wing star (seen in photo), an E-6B flight computer, several gun chutes, a mess kit, a match container, multiple .50cal armor piercing rounds and a propeller hub from one of the engines. Curtis P-36A 38-16 and P-36A 38-70This P-36A crashed on the Wailua Sugar Cane plantation, Oahu Hawaii U.S.A., due to a mid-air collision between Lt Ulysses S. O''Hern (P-36A 38-16) and Lt Richard A. Toole (P-36A 38-70) on July 12, 1941 0915 AM. Both aircraft were from the 45th Pursuit Squadron, 15th Pursuit Group, 7th Air Force. U.S. Navy TBM-1C "Avenger"This Navy TBM-1C "Avenger" was also found on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii. The aircraft was recovered by QuestMasters and is seen prior to disassembly for shipment. This aircraft served with a training squadron on Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii U.S.A., until a young U.S. Navy Ensign "ground-looped" the ill-fated plane (his third and yes final crash). The Ensign was unhurt but the aircraft was struck from inventory due to extreme damage. This TBM-1C sat for 50 years in the runway bushes of Barbers Point NAS until recovered in the mid-1990''s. QuestMasters Artillery Country Germany Type 10,5cm 105mm LFH 18 Manufacturer Krupp Year 1940 Serial Number 17 Country Germany Type 7,5cm 75mm PAK 40 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available Country Germany Type 2cm 20mm FLAK 38 Maker Not Available Year 1944 Serial Number Not Available United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy BomberB-24J-155-CO-44-40332 CREW LISTWayne R. Kimble, 2nd Lt., Pilot - K.I.A.William E. Somsel Jr., 2nd Lt., Co-Pilot - K.I.A.Charles E. Mueller, 2nd Lt., Navigator - K.I.A.Morris Righthand, 2nd Lt., Bombardier - K.I.A.Jack J. Dowd, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Marion F. Norman, Staff Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.James H. Means, Sgt., Gunner - K.I.A.Manual F. Campos, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Gerald L. Weiss, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A.Joseph J. Carlucci, Cpl., Gunner - K.I.A. This is a Motor Products hydraulic nose turret that will be used in this restoration project. This specific turret was found in a scrap yard in Macon, GA. The original nose turret for this B-24J was recovered but was destroyed beyond repair. During 1943-1944 the Consolidated San Diego factory ran out of Emerson electric nose turrets for their B-24J’s. A quick modification found the remaining B-24J’s made in San Diego with tail turrets mounted on the front of the aircraft (with the replacement of the nose turret electric systems with hydraulic systems). This production modification was only conducted at the Consolidated San Diego factory. Many earlier B-24s with "Green House" noses were converted using a very similar principal. This is the center fuselage section (frames 5.1 to 7.1) of B-24L-20-FO-44-50022. This B-24, recovered from Canada, was originaly built by the Ford Motor Company in Willow Run, Dearborn Michigan. This aircraft was transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force as Liberator Mk VIII and served briefly with the R.C.A.F. until the end of the war (note production A.A.F. markings over painted with R.C.A.F. markings). After the war this B-24 was scrapped in Canada. This section will be used in the restoration of B-24J-155-CO-44-40332. This is the Martin 250 upper turret. This turret was also recovered from a scrap yard in Macon, GA. for the restoration of this B-24J. The original M-250 upper turret from this aircraft was completely destroyed, but was recovered. The original turret was manufactured by "MAYTAG". After World War Two Maytag produced washing machines. This is the starboard nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.3). This is where 2nd Lt. Charles E. Mueller and 2nd Lt. Morris Righthand lost their lives. The severity of the crash can be clearly seen. The fragment to the extreme left is the front frame (0.1) for entry into the nose turret (missing door). The fragment in the extreme bottom of the photo is the armored plate with B-7 mount for the Norden Bombsight. The C-1 Bombsight Stabilizer was recovered from the crash site, but the Bombsight was missing. On the outside of the aircraft skin is the hand painted Consolidated build number 4268. This is the port nose section of this B-24J (frames 0.1 to 0.2). The extreme right fragment shows the entry frame to the nose turret with door attached. The extreme top fragment is the Astro-Dome for the Astro-Compass. The Astro-Compass was used for nighttime navigation. The following pictures are other B-24 parts that have been recovered for the restoration of this B-24 aircraft.In the center of the left photo is the Nose Landing Gear Wheel.This wheel utilized a 36 Inch S.C. 10 ply tire. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 1.0 through 3.0 - Pilot and Co-Pilot Pilot control wheel assembly with control wheel attached, left photo.Co-Pilot control wheel assembly, missing wheel and internal parts, right photo. Pilot (left) and Co-Pilot (right) Auxiliary Instrument Panels, left photo. Pilots Instrument Panel: (3) Type E-4 Hydraulic Pressure Gages, (1) AN-G-24 Suction Gage and Pilot vent. Co-Pilot Instrument Panel: (2) AN-5795-6 Carburetor Gages and Co-Pilot Vent.Right photo, Top Row (L to R): Radio Compass Control Indicator with mount (used only on early B-24''s), Turbo Boost Selector, Radio Compass and Mount. Bottom Row (L to R) Engine Switch Panel - Starter and Primer Switches (Co-Pilot side of cockpit), BC-451 Command Radio Control Box (mounted on Pedestal Assembly), Fast Feathering Switch for No. 4 Engine, and switch from Pedestal Mount. Pilot Seat (left photo). Pilot Seat is missing head rest, head rest cushion, back cushion, seat cushion and complete knee pad and support.Co-Pilot Seat (right photo). Complete with floor track attached. Missing head rest cushion, back rest cushion, seat cushion, arm rest upholstery and knee pad upholstery. Pilot left and right Rudder Pedals with cockpit floor, left photo.Co-Pilot right Rudder Pedal with cockpit floor, right photo. Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, missing plexiglass, left photo. Shown from inside of window.Co-Pilot cockpit enclosure vent window, right photo. Shown from outside of window. Co-Pilot fuse box, left photo. Missing fuses and cover. Mounted on Co-Pilot side of fuselage.BC- 434 Radio Control Box (top), BC-450 Radio Control Box (bottom), right photo. Mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. BC-765 Radio Switchbox, left photo. This box was used to destroy the "special radio" equipment on the B-24 so that it would not be captured by the enemy. Located above the instrument panel below the windscreen.Spare Pilot or Co-Pilot cockpit floor, right photo. Note markings for Rudder Pedal settings. Instrument panel support assembly, above photo. The support assembly, was the lower part of the instrument panel and allowed the attachment of the Auxiliary Instrument Panels and Control Wheel Assemblies. The above photo shows the pilot section of the support, with oxygen gages attached and the rear of the co-pilot support assembly. Four Oxygen Regulator Mounts (left photo). Each mount contained one Type A-12 or A-12A Oxygen Regulator,AN 6021-1 Oxygen Pressure Gage and AN 6029-1 Oxygen Flow Indicator. One mount was located on either side of the Pilot and Co-Pilot.Seven BC-366 Radio Jack Boxes (right photo). The BC-366 Jack Box was used to connect the microphone and headset to the radio system. Only two BC-366 Jack Boxes would have been used in the B-24 cockpit. The other five will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration. Six Type Q-1B Heated Flight Suit Rheostat (left photo). Only two Q-1B''s would be used in the cockpit, the other four will be used in other areas of the B-24 during this restoration.Operating Instructions For AN/ARN-7 Radio Plate (right photo). This plate was located next to the BC-450 Radio Control Box mounted on the cockpit enclosure center frame. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber COCKPIT PARTS Stations (Frames) 3.0 through 4.1 - Radio Operator and Top Turret Radio Operator Table with BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver, AN-3047 Work Table Light Assembly, J-37 Morse Code Key and Radio Operator''s Information File. J-37 Morse Code Key and Monitor Switch, left photo. Note original "RADIO CALL" number 449157 painted below switch. This Radio Table was removed from Ford B-24L-1-FO-44-49157.BC-348 Liaison Radio Receiver with FT-154 Receiver Mount, right photo. BC-306 Antenna Tuning Unit with FT-142 Antenna Tuning Unit Mount, left photo.PE-73 Dynamotor Unit with FT-107 Dynamotor Mount, right photo. Fuel Sight Gage, left photo.Main Fuel Tank Selectors Panel, right photo. Power Panel Switch Box Cover with (4) Type E-1 Amperage Gages, left photo. Missing Power Switch Box GK32E1043and Type B-1 Voltmeter.Trailing Antenna, right photo. FT-470 Mounting (Top), M235 Antenna Wire (Left), RL-42 Antenna Reel (Right) Radio Operator Seat Support Assembly (Above). Bombardier''s seat assembly (left photo). This style of seat was only used on early B-24''s with the "greenhouse" style nose. This seat is very similar to the Radio Operator''s seat assembly, and this seat will be used with the support pictured above. BC-221 Frequency Meter (left photo).TM 11-300AE BC-211 Manual datedAugust 7th 1943(right photo). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.4 through 6.0 - Command Deck BC-357 Radio Receiver with FT-161 Mount and CD-365 Cord, left photoBC-453, BC-454 and BC-455 Radio Receiver with FT-220 Radio Rack, right photo. FT-220 Rack is missing the FT-221 Mount. BC-457 Radio Transmitter with FT-226 Radio Rack. The FT-226 Radio Rack is missing the BC-459 Radio Transmitter andFT-227 Radio Rack Mount. BC-645 Radio Receiver and Transmitter, left photo. The BC-645 is missing the FT-255 Radio Mount.Tag attached to BC-645 states: "THIS EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN ALIGNED WITH DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED IN THE BASE. FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS SHOULD ALWAYS BE MADE WITH REAL OR DUMMY DESTROYERS INSTALLED, bottom right photo. BK-22 Relay Station, left photo.PE-101 Dynamotor Unit, right photo. PE-101 Dynamotor is missing the FT-255 Mount. TU-5 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo.TU-10 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, right photo. TU-26 Radio Transmitter Tuning Unit, left photo. Bomb Hoist with handle. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber NOSE PARTS Stations (Frames) 0 through 1.1 - Bombardier and Navigator Station Type M-9 Norden Bomb Sight on original shipping mount, left photo. M-9 Bomb Sight nomenclature plate, right photo. This Bomb Sight was made by the Victor Adding Machine Company. Type A-1 Astrograph with storage case, left photo. The Astrograph used translucent maps of the constellations.These maps allowed the Navigator to plot a course at night. Also shown in the photo are spare bulbs and tools that were stored in the Astrograph case. The Type A-1 Astrograph was used with the MK II Astrocompass.Type B-5 Drift Meter, right photo. Type B-3A Bomb Release, left photo.Navigator''s Astrodome Window, right photo. MK II Astrocompass with storage box, left photo.Bombardiers heater assembly, right photo. This heater was made by The Stewart Warner Corporation. Nose Landing Gear Leg and Support Arms, left photo.Nose Landing Gear Doors, above photo.The B-24 Liberator was produced with two styles of Nose Landing Gear Doors, inward opening and outward opening.Port inward opening door, extreme left; and three starboard outward opening doors, right. Nose Landing Gear Hydraulic Leg Operating Assembly, above photo. The B-24 used only one hydraulic assembly per aircraft.- Nose Landing Gear Parts -Left photo, top to bottom, left to right:Support Arm Pivot, Door Bearing (for outward opening door), Port Door Opening Housing (for inward opening doors), Door Opening Arms (for left and right outward opening doors) and two Leg Scissors (only one would be used per aircraft). United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber TAIL PARTS Stations (Frames) 6.1 through 10Ball Turret, Waist Guns and Tail Turret Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter for left and right waist guns. The Type E-13 Adapter held the M-2 .50 caliber Machine Gun in the Type K-7 Side Gun Mount with C-19A Mount Adapter. The E-13 Adapter utilized the Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. This configuration was used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. Waist or Side Gun Ammunition Box, left and right photo. One ammunition box was provided per gun and contained 600 rounds of .50 caliber ammunition. The white label states: EMERGENCY, TO REMOVE AMMUNITION BOX, PULL HINGE PIN AFT, LIFT EDGE OF BOX AND REMOVE. The ammunition box in the left photo is show with a portion of the feed chute attached. Tail Turret Ammunition Boxes, left and right photo.These boxes were stacked just aft of the waist gun position and fed the tail turret via a long rigid feed chute. Tail Turret Hydraulic System, left photo. Missing from the system is the Hydraulic Turret Pump Motor.Main Entrance Door Installation, right photo. Mounted in Station 7.4 - 7.6. Hanger and Retraction Cylinder Assembly for the Type A-13 Ball Turret, left photo. Spare Parts Box for A-13 Ball Turret, above center photo.Spare Parts Box, inside view, above right photo. The spare parts box held extra fuses and brushes that may be needed for replacement during flight. Type LP-21 ADF "Football" Radio Antenna (left photo).This antenna was originally black, with stenciling "Do Not Paint". Contrary to instruction, this antenna has been painted silver with unit markings applied. It will be restored, when mated to the fuselage, in it''s original war-time flat-black finish.LP-21 Dehydrator, Loop Antenna (right photo). The LP-21 Dehydrator was used to draw moisture away from the LP-21 Antenna. The attachment brackets are also shown. Left photo: Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box, Tail Turret Power Switch Box and Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box.The Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box is located under the Radio Operator''s floor near Station (Frame) 3.1. Only one Inverter Transmitter Assembly Box was used per aircraft.Right photo: Unknown electrical box cover and unknown fuselage access panel, top row.Fuze Box Cover (Station 4.0), Bomb Release Signal Tail Light Shield and Wing Access Plate, center row.Wing Landing Light Relay Box Assembly Cover, bottom row. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber WING PARTS B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub Cap, left photo.The B-24 Liberator used a 56 Inch S.C. 16 ply tire with tube for the Main Landing Gear. This example was made by theRoyal Aircraft Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the BF Goodrich Tire Company. B-24 Main Landing Gear Tire with Hub , left photo.This example was made by the Good Year Tire Company. Fairing Assembly - Wing Streamlined Wheel (left photo). This was mounted on the bottom of the wing, behind the landing gear wheel.Starboard Main Landing Gear Door (right photo). Port side Main Landing Gear Leg (left photo).Starboard side Main Landing Gear Leg(right photo). Main Landing Gear wing attachment parts (left photo). Other wing parts (right photo). Main Landing Gear Wheel Brake Assembly.(left photo).Two brake assemblies were used on each wheel. United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber BOMB BAY PARTS Stations (Frames) 4.0 through 6.0 - Bomb Bay Bomb racks (left and right photo). Two racks were located on each side of the bomb bay. Bomb Bay Doors, inside view (upper left and right photo, and above lower left and right photo). Bomb Bay Door damage, possibly from wartime anti-aircraft United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS United States Consolidated B-24 Heavy Bomber ENGINE PARTS Cowl Flap (left photo). Cowl Panel (right photo). Engine parts (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). One oil tank was mounted behind each engine on the B-24. United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment HEAVY BOMBER CARRY- ON EQUIPMENT Type A-4 Walk Around Oxygen Bottle with AN 6022-1 Regulator (left photo). Close-up of decal on Type A-4 bottle (right photo). This bottle was specifically made for the B-24 Liberator and has a part number of 32F24125. Type E-1 Bombardier''s Case (left photo). Type E-2 Bombardier''s Case (right photo). Type A-4 Navigator''s Dead Reckoning Case (left photo). Type A-6 Celestial Navigation Case (right photo). Type A-10A Sextant (left photo). Type AN 5854-1 Sextant (right photo). Pilot''s Navigation Kit (left photo). B-24 Flight Check List and B-24 Load Adjuster with case (right photo). Type A-1 Aircraft Food Container (left photo). Type FTG-3-1 Food Tray Galley (right photo). Type E-5 Emergency Sustenance Kit (left photo). Oil tanks (right photo). AN-R-2A One-Man Life Raft Parachute Kit (right photo). Type K-20 Aircraft Camera (left photo). Type A-14 Oxygen Mask with Storage Box and Stowage/Carry Bag (right photo). AN 6511-1 Seat Type Parachute Pack (left photo). Shipping boxes for .50 caliber ammunition (right photo). Ammunition for aircraft machine-guns was usually pre-linked when shipped. Ammunition would be removed from the shipping crate, carried onto the aircraft and stowed in the onboard ammunition boxes. AN-CRN-1 Navigation Buoy. The AN-CRN-1 was a low frequency buoy used for homing purposes on pre-set frequencies between 1400-1750KC by aircraft equipped with any production model of Radio Compass SCR-269. This system keyed at a rate of 180 times a minute and interrupted every thirty seconds by a signal code letter which may be either K, M, O, Q, X or Y. The SCR-578-B Gibson Girl radio set was the primary aircraft survival radio set used during World War Two. This system was used for survival communications when an aircrew was forced out of their aircraft. It had a reported range of 50 to 300 miles, dependent upon conditions affecting radio transmission. The nick-name Gibson Girl was given to this radio set due to its'' feminine curvy shape. The BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3, radio set shown in the left photo is a crystal controlled radio that operates in the 500KC, Kilo Cycle range (known as Kilo Hertz/KHz today) and 8280KC International Maritime Frequency range. The 8280KC range was determined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as the world-wide Air Sea Rescue Frequency. Oxygen bottle for oxy-acetylene welding set (left photo). This bottle was used by ground personnel for repairing aircraft. The center photo shows property markings: U.S. ARMY and AIR FORCES. The right photo shows bottle type: ICC-3A2260 H170928, W D (War Department) and dated 2 43 (February 1943). United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment United States Heavy Bomber Carry-On Equipment Type H-1 Emergency Bail Out Oxygen Bottle (left photo). This is one of the few examples of wartime aircraft equipment being marked U.S. AIRFORCE vice U.S. Army Air Force. Aircraft Instrument and Machine Gun Lubricating Oil can (right photo). Type B-2 Jungle Emergency Parachute Back Pad (left photo).This kit contained a Type E-3A Emergency Sustenance Kit, 2 Carlisle First Aid Kits, Folding Machete, Pocket Compass, Waterproof Match Container, Mosquito Lotion, 1 Box of 20 rounds of .45 caliber ammunition plus other items. Survival Food items (right photo).Type C; Ration Biscuits, Type C Ration Can, Wrigley''s Juicy Fruit Gum, Wrigley''s Doublemint Gum, Beech-Nut Gum, Malted Milk Tablets 1oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 2oz., Hershey''s Tropical Chocolate 1oz.,Nestle''s All-Weather Chocolate 2oz., Type D Ration 2oz., Type D Ration 4oz., Life Raft Ration Container, Cryst-O-Mint Lifesavers and Beech-Nut Rummies Survival Items (left photo).Emergency Fishing Kit container, Emergency Fishing Kit, Type JJ-1 Sea Water Desalting Kit, Type & A Life Boat Ration, Air Crew Lunch box and Emergency Ration. Tobacco Items (right photo).Chesterfield Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes), Camel Cigarette Carton (10 packs of cigarettes),4 packages of pre-1942 Lucky Strike Cigarettes, & Phillip Morris Cigarette Package and Chelsea Cigarette Page from a Type K Ration. The Lucky Strike Cigarette Package was changed from green to white between 1942 and 1943 to save green dye for other war production items. Signal Drift, Day, AN-MK-1 (top, left photo).Signal Drift AN-MK-IV (bottom left photo).These devices were used as a navigational aid over water for determining drift. These devices could also be used for marking a life raft position temporarily, when a longer burning smoke was not available. Type F-2 Utility Heater (left photo). This heater was used for heating aircraft components during cold weather operations. Type K-2 and Type K-3 (C-3A) Inter-Aircraft Control Lamp Assemblies (right photo).These lamps were used to signal from one aircraft to another. Type A-3 Headlight Flashlight Assembly (left photo). Type 42D4499 Ultra-Violet Headlight Flashlight Assembly (right photo).The Type 42D4499 Assembly was used to illuminate switches and gages during low light or night time flying operations. Type A-5 Inspection Flashlight Lamp Assembly (left photo). Army Air Force 5 gallon gasoline cans (left photo). Two variations of gasoline cans are shown marked: PROPERTY AIR FORCE U.S.A. (United States Army), above top and bottom right photo. Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 1 Gallon (left photo).Container, Liquid, Heat Insulated, 2 Gallon (right photo). Kit, First Aid, Jungle (left photo). This first aid kit was used for aircraft flying over jungle areas. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND This Type A-2 Flight Jacket belonged to Captain August J. Kieser, USAAF. "Gus", as his friends call him, was born on February 11th, 1921. He entered the service in 1942 from New York. He received his training and went on to fly C-87 "Liberator Express" Cargo Aircraft with theA.T.C. in Tezpur, India from December 1944 to May 1945. During this time frame "Gus" logged over 750 Hours and 75 “Hump” Missions to China. The blue paint on the sleeves of the jacket are from when Gus painted his house after World War Two while wearing this jacket. On the left sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the C.B.I. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the right sleeve of the A-2 Jacket is the A.A.F. patch. This multi-piece patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. On the left chest of the A-2 Jacket is a hand made name tape. The name tape was written in three different languages. This patch was hand made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This Type A-2 Flight Jacket was made by the MONARCH MFG CO. under contract W535A.C-23378. This is a photo of Captain Kieser wearing the A-2 Jacket in India, 1944-1945. Note the unofficial A.T.C. patch on the jacket and the privately purchased, non-regulation boots. "Gus" had these made in Brazil when he was passing through to Africa/Asia. Also note the other A-2 with "Blood Chit" on the chair next to "Gus". This jacket belonged to the gentleman taking the photo. This is the un-official A.T.C. patch. "Gus" removed this patch from his A-2 after the war, so that it could be displayed in his office. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the exact patch seen in the photo above. This patch will be re-applied to the A-2. This is one of the other patches that "Gus" had. It is a multi-piece squadron patch made for the India China Wing Air Transport Command. This patch was also made in Tezpur, India in 1944. This is the inside view of the hat that is on display with Captain Kieser''s A-2 Jacket. This hat was made by the "Streamline Company" of Los Angeles California. It is marked "FLIGHT CAP" for specific sale to Army Air Force Officers. This hat was specifically made with the "crushed" look, preferred by Army Air Force pilots. This is not an issue hat, but rather one privately purchased by service members. United States Army Air Force Cargo Pilot AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND August J. Kieser U.S. Army Air Force Cargo PilotAIR TRANSPORT COMMAND - A.T.C. China-Burma-India Theater 1944-1945 The is one of the pictures from Gus'' photo album. The original hand written caption read "50 CHINKS CHENGTU". These are Chinese soldiers that were being transported via C-87. Note the C-87 in the background with tail number 228. Also noteworthy are the civilian trucks unloading cargo from the front and side of the C-87. This photo is a C-47 in Chinese markings. U.S. and Chinese soldiers are in the foreground. Gus could not remember why he circled the man in the door. Here is a photo of Gus sitting on a surf board in Accra, British West Africa. Gus flew C-47s and C-46s for the A.T.C. in Accra from July 3 - Dec 26 1944. The non-regulation flight boots were made in Brazil. Note the issue summer pith helmet with Officers'' insignia. This is one of the pages from Gus'' pilot logbook. Note the various aircraft and tail numbers. In the A.T.C., C.B.I. cargo pilots were not assigned to specific aircraft. On this page Gus flew both C-87s and C-109s. This is another page for Gus'' pilot log. Note the entry on March 30th 1945 "HIT CHINK". During the take-off taxi, a local Chinese civilian ran in front of Gus'' C-87. The propeller blade killed the civilian. Gus recalled that some of the Chinese civilians that worked on the runway believed that running in front of the aircraft would pull the evil spirits away into the propellers. Many Chinese civilians were killed during this practice. United States Cargo GMC Truck 2 1/2 Ton G-508 Type: Truck, Cargo, LWB, 2 1/2 Ton, 6x6Government Number: G-508Model: CCKW 353Manufacturer: Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg Co. (Division of the General Motors Company, Pontiac Michigan) Date of Delivery: September 1942Serial Number: 189590Maintenance Manual: TM 9-801 Truck Details: Weight: Net 11,250 lbs., Payload 5,000 lbs., Gross 15,050 lbs. Ground Clearance: 10 inches Tires: 7.50 x 20 Split ring rim United States Waco CG-15A Glider United States Waco CG-15A Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown The Waco CG-15A Glider was the late war improvement of the earlier Waco CG-4A Glider. Three of the improvements made in the CG-15A was the use of stronger and thicker tubing for crew protection during landing, the addition of pilot/co-pilot doors in the cockpit for disembarkation after landing and the increased windscreen area which afforded the crew a better field of vision during flight and landing. CG-15A Glider in Europe (note the German aircraft in the background), left photo.CG-15A Glider being loaded/unloaded with a 1/4 Ton Truck, right photo. CG-15A Glider tow and radio connection, left photo. CG-15A Glider data plates, left top and bottom photos. Both plates are mounted above the center inside cockpit window frame. Waco CG-15 Specifications and Production Info: Type: Troop/Cargo Glider Payload: Ferrying/Troop Condition: 16 (Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 14 Troops) Jeep Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 4 Troops plus Jeep Howitzer Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot, 3 Gun Crew plus 75mm Gun Litter Condition: Pilot/Co-Pilot plus 6 Patients Specifications: Length: 48'' 10"Wingspan: 62'' 2.25"Empty Weight: 4000 lbs. Max Weight: 8035 lbs. Maximum At Takeoff Max Towing Speed: 180 mph Production: 1944/1945Total Aircraft Produced: XCG-15 (1), XCG-15A (2), CG-15A (875)Known Serial Numbers:45-5276 through 45-5660 CG-15A (385)45-12743 through 45-12784 CG-15A (42)45-12785 through 45-13232 CG-15A (448) United States Waco CG-4A Glider United States Waco CG-4A Hadrian Glider A.A.F. Serial Number: Unknown CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. This cockpit has been used as a source of spare tubing for some time. The bottom section of the cockpit has been removed as well as the rear seat area and top tubing. CG-4A Glider Cockpit, above photo. Rear view of the glider cockpit. The Pilot and Co-Pilot seat support area remains intact with the seat belt D Rings still attached. The instrument panel support tubing also remains intact. This cockpit section does not appear to have had a Griswold Nose Crash Protection System United States Clark Airborne Bulldozer CA-1 Type: Airborne Bulldozer (Tractor Crawler) Government Number: G-XXX Model: CA-1Manufacturer: Clark Equipment Company Buchanan, Michigan Date of Delivery: March 25th 1944 Serial Number: 441475Registration Number: 9113429Maintenance Manual: TM 5-3020. Left side of the CA-1. The original side mounted stowage boxes are missing, as well as many small parts. The front blade is held in place with a section of chain due to loss of hydraulic pressure. Rear view of the CA-1, left picture. The original rear mounted winch is missing. Clark Equipment Company nomenclature plate, left picture. This plate is located on the right side of the engine compartment, just behind the blade. The original color of the plate was silver on green. Waukesha Motor Company nomenclature plate, right photo. This plate is located on the left side of the engine, just below the head. Auxiliary Shipping Name Plate, left picture. This plate is mounted under the Clark nomenclature plate. This style of plate was added to vehicles for overseas shipment. Corps of Engineers nomenclature plate. This plate is mounted on the rear of the front blade. The original Army registration number is visible on the right side of the hood. The only numbers still visible are "11342".The registration number "9113429" would have been painted on both sides of the hood. The Clark CA-1 Bulldozer was designed to be delivered by air. The left picture shows a CA-1 loaded for delivery by Glider Borne troops. The right picture shows a CA-1loaded for delivery by a C-47.This specific C-47 is painted in Normandy; air recognition markings for the invasion of France, June 1944.The CA-1 was used in the European and Pacific Theaters. Clark CA-1 Production Info: The following is a partial list of the Contract Numbers, Clark Serial Numbers and Army Registration Numbers for the Clark CA-1. The Clark Serial Number can be broken down to the following: Example: CA-1(Vehicle Type)43(Year of Production)162(Vehicle Number) Contract No. W-145-A eng.-511Tractor Serial No. CA-1431 to No. CA-143162 (162 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 953463 to 953624Contract No. W-1088 eng. (MSP)-2460Tractor Serial No. CA-143193 to No. CA-143228 (135 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 977511 to 977546Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2155Tractor Serial No. CA-143229 to No. CA-1431015 (716 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963300 to 964086Contract No. W-1088 eng. 2165Tractor Serial No. CA-1431016 to No. CA-1431121 (205 Vehicles Produced) Army Registration No. 963144 to 963249 German Afrika Korps Pioneer (Engineer) North Africa 1941 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - Omaha Beach Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Army Engineer Special Brigade - ESB Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 The Engineer Special Brigade or ESB was organized in England from existing Engineer Combat Groups to support the landings and subsequent supply operations over Omaha Beach during the Normandy landings. The ESB Engineers found themselves helping out the assault troops in the early fighting for Omaha Beach. The uniform set shown to the left is from the 5th or 6th ESB unit that fought in the DOG and CHARLIE sector of Omaha Beach Normandy. The M-1 flex bail helmet has the 5th/6th ESB white arc painted over the ESB insignia. A black rubber M-5 Assault gas mask is suspended from the soldiers neck. This soldier wears a Flannel OD issue shirt under his M-1941 Field Jacket. His M-1928 khaki haversack supports a M-1923 M-1 Garand Cartridge Belt, M-1916 Pistol Holster with M-1911 .45 cal. Pistol, three Mk II Fragmentation Hand Grenades and One CN-DM Gas Hand Grenade. Around the waist of this soldier is the USN made Duel Type Invasion Life Belt. Additionally this soldier carries two spare bandoleers for 8 clips of .30-06 M-1 Rifle ammunition. Reverse view of the ESB uniform showing a white horizontal band on the rear of the M-1 Helmet for NCO’s (Non Commissioned Officers). The reverse of the M-1923 Haversack shows the M-1 Bayonet with M-7 Scabbard on the left side, M-1910 Entrenching Tool with carrier and stowed M-1942 Mess Kit. Suspended from this soldiers M-1923 Cartridge Belt is a M-1910 Canteen and a M-1942 First Aid Kit. On the left side of the ESB uniform is a bag that contains Demolition Chain Blocks of M-1 High Explosive. This is a close-up view of the ESB uniform with the Demolition Bag being show. This bag was made of olive cotton material. Espria, Italy 1943/1944Espria, Italy lies on the western flank of Monte Cassino, between Naples and Rome. This area was the focal point of the French Expeditionary Corps during the Allied drive toward Monte Cassino during late 1943 through early 1944. The F.E.C. was primarily comprised of Moroccan soldiers. These Moroccan soldiers were specifically chosen for operations in Espria for their mountain fighting ability. The Moroccan soldiers fought swiftly and surgically in this campaign. The summit above Espria is home to a Middle-Age Monastery, which is now in ruins. This area was occupied by the German Army and was used as an observation point for the western control of the Winter Line. QuestMaster Jonny Reb& Ray is pointing eastward toward Monte Cassino. This photo illustrates how well this mountain top controlled much of the movement in the Lire Valley. This photo shows QuestMasters conducting archeology work within the ruins. Several U.S. .30-06 caliber fired projectiles were found in the soft-face of the Monastery slopes, as well as a vintage Coca-Cola bottle and one German 5 liter gas can. Additionally, on the road leading to the summit, a German gas mask carrier, a German 5cm 3 round mortar carrier and a World War One German 8cm Trench Art shell casing was found. Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set Untied States SCR-578-B Gibson Girl Radio Set BG-155-A Bag and M-390-A Parachute (left photo). The BG-155-A Bag held the entire SCR-578-BRadio Set.BC-778-D, or AN-CRT-3 Radio Set (right photo). T-69F/AMT-2 Radiosonde Transmitter, M-278-A Hydrogen Balloons (2 balloons were used in this set to fly the kite mast), M-308-B Signal Lamp (head mounted) and Flashlight (left photo).M-357-A Kite Assembly (used to fly the antenna), M-315 Hydrogen Generator Inflation Tubes and the Kite and Tube Storage Bag (right photo). M-315 Hydrogen Generator Containers (left photo).The M-315 Hydrogen Generator was used to inflate the M-278 Balloons. Pill Box Glyfada, Greece Herculanium Italy Herculanium Italy Herculanium, Italy lies to the southwest of the Italian volcano, Mount Vesuvius. During the year 79 A.D. Mount Vesuvius erupted, showering the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculanium with molten rock and ash burying the two cities for almost 2000 years. Archeology work is still being conducted to reveal covered portions of the two cities. QuestMasters visited this famous city in 1998. QuestMasters has added this section to the Quest page for this specific photo. The emblem most frequently associated with Nazi Germany is the Swastika. This symbol was actually used several thousand years prior to the reign of the Third Reich. The left photo, taken in Herculanium, is a Greek cross with the ends of arms bent at counterclockwise right angles. This symbol was used as a sign of good luck, and was usually placed in the main doorway of a home or building as done in the left photo. The symbol of Nazi Germany was very similar, but was the exact mirror image with the arms bending clockwise. QuestMasters Home Page Welcome to QuestMasters - The foundation for the recovery and preservation of World War Two memorabilia for posterity. History of our Quest: The idea behind QuestMasters started during a recovery trip in Europe. After a long truck ride we realized that we were not only recovering and restoring World War Two memorabilia, but also going to the ends of the earth to do it. Hence - this is our Quest. Why we Quest? The Second World War lasted for over 6 years. For the United States, we were completely unprepared. Civilian companies quickly transformed into the American war machine. Small companies like Maytag, the washing machine company, made gun turrets for heavy bombers; Rock-Ola, a pin ball machine company, made rifles; Goodyear, the tire company, made fighter aircraft; Cadillac, the automobile company, made tank destroyers...and on and on. Farmboys, teachers, business men, barbers - men and women alike gave up their everyday jobs to put on a uniform, to fight for their country. They went to far-off lands, some unmapped - to fight and die. There was rationing and recycling. All gave some, and some gave all. Valor was a common virtue. And that is where we find ourselves, the children of a culture, responsible for the history of the sacrifice they made for us. Our goal: Our goal is the preservation of World War Two history. In the not too distant future, the breaths of those who were there making the history will no longer be able to tell the story. History is normally written by the victor, but this was a World War. It affected every country and every person, Allied and Axis. So, our focus is just that, to preserve the story, from both sides. It is our responsibility to tell their story. German Infantry Cart 18 German Type: Trailer 2 Wheel, Infantry, Hand Model: Unknown Manufacturer: Unknown Serial Number: Unknown This German trailer was recovered from Germany. The model or type is currently unknown. It is slightly larger than the Infantry Field Kart 8 (IF8 or JF8). The restoration of this cart (kart) was done in Germany. The original tires are present on the cart. The size of the tires is 3.50-19. Both tires are made by the Continental Tire Company. United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer United States Navy Pratt Read LNE-1 Glider Trainer Aircraft LNE-1 Glider Mfg: Pratt Read & Co. Inc., Gould Aero. Div., Deep River ConnecticutMfg’s Model No.: PR-G1 Serial Number: 52U.S. Navy Serial Number: LNE-1 BuNo 31556U.S. Army Serial Number: TG-32-PR-43-39557Date Produced: 23 March 1943Maximum Glide or Dive Speed: 86 Knots; Wingspan: 54’ 6”; Length: 26’ 3”History:In 1943, a contract was ordered for 100 Type LNE-1 Gliders for the U.S. Navy from the Gould Aero Division of the Pratt Read Company. The LNE-1 was a two seat glider trainer. The proposed design was made for the training of Navy/Marine Corps glider pilots to land Marines in the Pacific during World War Two. The Navy glider program was quickly disbanded, as glider landings in the Pacific during WWII was not practical and 73 LNE-1’s were transferred to the United States Army Air Force. These LNE-1''s were re-designated TG-32''s. All 73 TG-32’s were put into storage at Souther Field, Americus Georgia through the end of WWII and sold through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. By 1944, the LNE-1''s (now turned into U.S.A.A.F. TG-32''s) were selling for $500 (FOB Americus GA). The price could be reduced if the buyer went to Americus, assembled the glider at Souther Field, and flew it away as a complete aircraft. The only thing left behind was the shipping crate. These crates were then sold to local African-American share croppers who would use them for components of their houses. Markings/Paint: The LNE-1 had a fabric covered forward metal frame with wooden wings and tail. The vertical stabilizer. LNE-1 was painted in black on both sides of the rudder. No national insignia has been noted to have been painted on either side of the wings. When the LNE-1 Gliders were transferred to the U.S.A.A.F. the aircraft remained painted in Navy yellow with the addition of A.A.F. serial number painted on the shipping crate. The LNE-1/TG-32''s were not uncrated by the U.S.A.A.F. The instrument panel was painted black. Interior cockpit was painted “interior green” to include the plywood seats. Release knob was painted red. Several LNE-1’s have been noted with black group markings painted forward of “U.S.NAVY” on the tail boom.LNE-1 BuNo 31556 still retains the original nose tire, release knob, control sticks and rudder pedals. The fabric covering, windows and plywood seats have long since rotted away. Known serial number range:XLNE-1 BuNo 31505 - 31506LNE-1 BuNo 31507 - 31585 (Contract cancelled at Serial Number 31580)andBuNo 34115 - 34134 (Not Delivered) Army Air Force Serial Numbers: TG-32-PR 43-39509 - 43-39578 and 43-43329 - 43-43331Known surviving examples:#31506 Factory prototype: Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Elmira Corning Regional Airport, NY.#31508 (The first TG-32): Under restoration for flight-status at Tehachapi, CA.#31509 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31518: Under restoration: Seattle Museum of Flight in Renton, WA.#31521: THE ONLY AIRWORTHY LNE-1: Scott Airpark in Lovettsville VA.#31523: In storage: National Museum of the United States Air Force Dayton, OH.#31525 Cockpit Only: In private storage in California.#31527: Under restoration for flight status: Sandhill Crane Soaring, Richmond Field Gregory, MI.#31537: On public display: Hoosier Warbird Museum, DeKalb Regional Airport Auburn, IN#31540: In storage: Southern Museum of Flight in Birmingham, AL.#31542 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31543: In storage: Tehachapi, CA#31556 Cockpit Only: QuestMasters Collection.#31558 In storage: Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, TX.#31561: On public display: New England Air Museum Bradley International Airport in CT.#31569: In storage: Sandhill Crane Soaring: Richmond Field near Gregory, MI.#31570 Fuselage Only: In private storage in Tennessee.#31572: On display: Bonanzaville Aviation Museum in Fargo ND.#31577 Cockpit Only: In private storage in MI.#31578: On display: Aviation Museum of Kentucky; Bluegrass Airport in Lexington, KY. United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart United States Airborne 75mm Howitzer M18 Paracaisson Cart The M18 was used by Airborne Artillery units to air drop 75mm ammunition for the M8 Airborne Pack Howitzer. The M18 was air dropped via parachute as a cylindrical container. The container separated into two parts: the cart bottom and the top cover. The top cover was a simplified version of the cart bottom. The top cover was discarded after assembly. When the M18 was deployed, the wheels, tow handle and cables were stored inside of the container. The M18 could carry 18 rounds of ammunition in cardboard storage containers. The ammunition/storage dividers are missing on the inside of this cart. Additionally, the tire shown on this cart is not original. The original 4.00-8 tires were made by Goodyear. The above two pictures are from an original wartime manual. The picture to the left shows six M9A2 paracaissons mounted under a C-47 Cargo Aircraft. The photo to the right is a deployed empty and then fully loaded M9A2 ready for towing. This tire was made by the GOOD YEAR Tire Company. Two of these tires were found on a Cub Cadet 102 tractor. The tread style is exactly the same as the original M9A2 tire, but the size is slightly larger. The size on this tire is 4.80/4.00-8. These tires will be used on the restoration of this M18. This tire, left and above, is mounted on a museum M9A2 Paracaission. The tire is made by BF GOODRICH - SILVERTOWN, size 4.00-8.To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 This tire (above four photos) is made by GOOD YEAR, size 4.00-8.This is one of two tires that will be used to restore the M9A2 owned by Handcartz To view this M9A2 click here: HANDCARTZ M9A2 The original rims have been disassembled for restoration, left photo. The inside of the rim reveals the original color of the M18 as well as the original primer. The M18 was primed in Yellow Zinc Chromate due to being made of aluminum. This M18 will be restored using Olive Drab 33070. Restored rim with Yellow Zinc Chromate Primer, left photo. The outer rim half is stamped with the part number 7131535 The inner rim half is stamped with the part number 7131536 The center hub is stamped with the part number B7119364 History Three types of Airborne Paracaissons were used during World War Two: M9 (Wood),M9A2 (Steel) and the M18 (Aluminum Alloy).The Aluminum Alloy Paracrate Load for the M8 Howitzer was deployed in 9 loads: Paracrate Load M1:Howitzer Trail Assembly, Paracrate M1, Drawbar, Lifting Bar. Paracrate Load M2:Howitzer Rear Trail, Howitzer Axle and Traversing Mechanism, Howitzer Trail Handspike, Bore Brush Staff, Spare Parts and Tool Box, Caster Wheel and Paracrate M2.Paracrate Load M13:Howitzer Bottom Sleigh, Aiming Circle with Case, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M13.Paracrate Load M14:Howitzer Cradle, Howitzer Top Sleigh, Lifting Bar and Paracrate M14.Paracrate Load M15:Howitzer Tube, Lifting bar and Paracrate M15.Paracrate Load M16:Howitzer Breech Assy., Telescope and Mount, Paracrate M16.Paracrate Load M7A1:Howitzer Wheels (2) and Paracrate M7A1.Parachest Load M17:Ammunition (10 rounds in fiber containers) and Parachest M17.Paracaisson Load M18:Ammunition (8 rounds in fiber containers) and Paracaisson M18. Untied States Martin M-250 Top Turret Untied States Martin M-250 CE B-24 Top Turret Untied States Willys Trailer 1/4 Ton MB-T Type: Trailer 2 Wheel 1/4 Ton Government Number: G-605Model: MB-T Manufacturer: Willys Overland Date of Delivery: November 1942Serial Number: 12494Parts Manual: TM 10-1230Maintenance Manual TM 10-1230 This is the original data plate that was found on this MB-T. The two holes in the center of the plate are from a bracket that was added after the war. It should be noted that the two "4''s" in the serial number "12494" are different fonts from different stamping sets. The first "4" has an open top, the second "4" has a closed top. This is a replica plate from Dataplates4u in Holland: http://www.dataplates4u.com New Old Stock Inter-Vehicle cable, left photo. The bakelite connector is made by the Warner Electric Brake MFG Co. Left and Right Tail Light Assy, above photo. The Willys MB-T used Corcoran-Brown tail light assy''s. The face of the light is marked C-B and the housing is marked Corcoran-Brown on the top. Trailer Details: Weight: Net 550 lbs., Payload 500 lbs., Gross 1050 lbs. Loading Height: 22 inches Ground Clearance: 12 1/2 inches Tires: 6.00x16 with two piece combat rims Tail Lights and Reflectors made by: Corcoran-Brown United States Navy Sailor NCDU Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 U.S. Navy Sailor NCDU - Navy Combat Demolition Unit 7 Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 QuestMasters Ordnance QuestMasters Ordnance Back row: Schrapnellmine 35 (S.Mi.35) storage box for three mines, Fuze crimping tool,1 Kilogram Demolition Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze and 3 Kilogram Demolition Charge.Center row: S-Mine 35 (S.Mi.35) with S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Stock-Mine 43 (STo.Mi.43) with Z.Z.35 Fuze, Glasmine 43 (Gl.Mi.43) with Hebelzunder Fuze and Kraftstoff Granate (Gasoline Grenade).Front row: Zeit Zunder 37 (Zt.Z.f. SpBu 37) time fuze, two Z.Z.35 Fuzes, Z.Z.42 Fuze, D.Z.35 Fuze, S.Mi.Z.35 Fuze, Sprengkorper 28 Mine Charge with Z.Z.42 Fuze, Teller Mine Zunder 35 (T.Mi.Z.35)Trip Wire Mine Fuze and Blendkorper 2 H (M2H) Glass Smoke Grenade. 8,8cm Raketenpanzerbuchse (Rocket Launcher)Ordnance tan painted carrying box (top of photo) and natural wood carrying box (bottom of photo).Raketen Munition 4322 (Rocket) in center of photo.The 4322 Rocket could be used with the Raketenpanzerbuchse 43 or 54. The RPzB 43 and 54 were nicknamed Ofenrohr (Stovepipe) and Panzerschrek (Tank Terror) by the Germans. It had an effective range of 150 meters and could penetrate all Allied Armor during World War Two. United States Army Air Force Northrop P-61 Black Widow U.S. Army Air Force Northrop P-61A Black Widow Night Fighter P-61A Black Widow nose section, left photo. The nose section of the P-61 is made of fiberglass for the SCR-720A Radar set. This Radome was found in Hawaii in the mid 1990''s. Some of original black paint and red stenciling remain on the outside of the Radome. Unfortunately the radome is slightly cracked due to 50+ years of unloving exposure. P-61A Black Widow gunners canopy, left photo. The P-61 had two canopies: one for the pilot and one for the gunner (as seen in the above black and white photo). This canopy was recovered from a scrap yard in Ewa, Hawaii U.S.A. Many P-61''s and B-24''s were scrapped at Ewa after the war. This canopy was traded to the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum for the restoration of their P-61 in 1996. P-61A Black Widow engine propeller assembly for the R-2800 engine, left photo. This assembly retains almost all of its original paint and stenciling. This propeller assembly was not recovered by QuestMasters. German 7,5cm PAK 40 Anti-Tank Cannon Country: Germany Type: 7,5cm PAK 40Model: Panzer Abwehr Kanonen 40 Manufacturer: Not Available Date: 1944Serial Number: Not Available Right side of the PAK 40. The wheels on this cannon are the late-war style with holes. The holes were added to save rubber. Two 7,5cm (75mm) Shell Casings. The PAK 40 used the model 6340 shell casing with C/12nA percussion fired primer. The suffix St was applied to the shell casing or primer type if it was made of Stahl or Steel, i.e. 6340 St or C/12nASt. PAK 40 Cleaning Rod, top of photo. PAK 40 Bore Brush, bottom of photo QuestMasters is currently looking for additional shell casings, projectiles, ammunition cans, and a gun sight for the restoration of this PAK 40. German Panther V Road Wheel German Panzerkampfwagen V Panther; Ausf. G tank outer road wheel. The German Panther tank utilized 8 outer road wheels (four on each side). This road wheel was recovered from Bastogne Belgium in 1998. This history of this specific vehicle is unknown. The large shell hole is approximately 75mm''s. This Panther was moving when it was hit, which is clearly indicated by the track teeth indentations on the rubber wheel. Manufacturer markings on the rubber portion of wheel: No 935 jnk, left photo; 860/100-D, right photo. B-24 Nose Turret The Emerson A-15 Electric Nose Turret was used on all late war B-24 Liberators, except those produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant.B-24 Liberators produced at the Consolidated San Diego plant used modified A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the front of the aircraft (as seen on the B-24 in the black and white picture above).Early B-24 Liberators that were produced with " Green House " noses were also depot modified with A-6 or A-6B Hydraulic Tail Turrets mounted in the nose. A-15 Gunner Seat area, above left and right photo. The control column grip assembly is missing from this turret. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun left mount, above left photo. Turret Control box, above right photo. Oxygen System Assembly, above left photo. The A-15 Nose Turret used an A-12A Diluter Demand Oxygen Regulator with Oxygen Blinker and Pressure Gauge to regulate the oxygen to the turret gunner during high altitude flight.K-11 Gun Sight Mount and Drive Box, above right photo. K-11 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-11 Compensating Gun Sight Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-11 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-11 Sight to the turret. E-3 Generator Type: Generator, 3.0 KW, 1 Phase Government Number: None Model: E-3Manufacturer: O''Keefe & Merritt Co. Date of Delivery: 1944Serial Number: 2188 Model E-3 Generator Set nomenclature plate, left photo. This plate is mounted on the outside of the control panel door. Control panel with door open, right photo. The control panel is located on the end of the generator set. Note that this generator has several different styles of 120 volt receptacles. Engine compartment with doors open, left photo. O''Keefe & Merritt Model E-3 Synchronous 1 Phase Generator nomenclature plate, above photo. Right side of E-3 Generator Set, left photo. Rear of the E-3 Generator Set, right photo. The rear of the E-3 Generator houses the fire extinguisher. The door for the fire extinguisher is marked in raised letters " FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSIDE HERE ". The bracket is the standard style used on most U.S. WWII military vehicles. B-24 Waist Guns Left Waist Gun Assembly, above photo. The late B-24 waist gun comprised of an AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun attached to a Type E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, Type K-7 Mount with Type C-19A Mount Adapter and a Type K-13 Compensating Gun Sight. On the top cover of theAN-M2 is a Type J-4 Gun Heater. This configuration was only used in late B-24 Liberators that were produced with enclosed waist gun positions. E-13 Gun Mount Adapter, above left photo. This is what the E-13 Adapters looked like when they were originally obtained. The E-13 in the rear of the photo was missing the "duck bill" sight mount, and grips when this photo was taken. This has been corrected.E-13 Gun Mount Adapter Nomenclature Plate, above right photo. AN-M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun, above photo. The AN-M2 was used in all positions on the B-24 Liberator - the Ball Turret, Nose Turret, Top Turret, Tail Turret and both Waist Gun Positions. The two AN-M2s pictured above are compliant with BATFE standards by having a replica 1/2" thick right side plate, prohibiting the fitting of any internal machine gun parts. The AN-M2 pictured above is shown prior to restoration. One of the details that differentiates the AN-M2 .50 Caliber Aircraft Machine Gun from the M-2 Ground Machine Gun is the top cover. The top cover has the added provisions to aid opening while wearing heavy gloves, as seen on the rear side and top of the cover. This photo also shows the thick cuts made during the demilitarization process. This AN-M2 has not been fully restored. K-7 Mount, rear and front, above two photos. The K-7 Mount supported the entire AN-M2 .50 caliber machine gun to the side of the aircraft. Note the large springs housed on the inside of the mount. These springs were added to compensate for the weight of the gun assembly. This afforded the gunner a better ability to handle the weapon and not fight the weight of the weapon when engaged. J-4 Gun Heater, left photo. The Gun Heater was electrically powered and kept the guns warm at high altitudes to avoid freezing when not firing.C-19A Gun Mount Adapter, right photo. This connected the E-13 Gun Mount Adapter to the K-7 Mount. K-13 Compensating Gun Sight, left photo.K-13 Nomenclature Plate, above photo. The K-13 Compensating Gun Sight was a late war innovation that used the aircraft altitude and speed with the direct correlation of where the weapon was pointed to calculate the reticle. The aircraft altitude and speed was programmed on the rear of the sight. The correlation was determined by drive lines that connected the K-13 Sight to the K-7 Mount. U.S. Army 1st Lieutenant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This officer illustrates the equipment that was worn by an officer assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944. The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Close-up view of Rangers patch, above photo. This patch was specifically designed for the Invasion of Normandy to replace the earlier Ranger Battalion Scroll patch. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted over a white vertical stripe, which was the designation for officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by BF Goodrich. These boots are a size 8EE. BC-611-F Handie-Talkie Radio, left photo. M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, above photo. This M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun has a replica all aluminum BATFE approved dummy receiver from IMA-USA. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Officer markings on front and rearM-1 Helmet Liner, made by WestinghouseM-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on right sleeveM-1936 Pistol Belt, made by A.M.Co.1943M-1936 SuspendersM-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by J.A. Shoe 1943M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO 1944M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by FOLEY MFG. CO. 1944M-1910 First Aid Pouch, made by J.Q.M.D. 1942 and owner marked S1216M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by MILWAUKE SADDLERY CO. 1943M-1923 Pistol Magazine Pouch, made by B.B. INC. 1942Submachine-gun Magazine Pouch, five pocket M-1936 Field Mussett Bag, made by HAMLIN CANVAS GOODS CO. 1942 and owner marked G-8490M-1938 Dispatch Case, made by HOFF -42-M-7 Assault Gas Mask CarrierM-17 Binocular CaseBC-611-F Radio, made by ELECTRICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES INC.USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO Service Boots, soles made by BF GoodrichM-1938 Leggings, made by MEYERS & SON MFG CO. 2-25-42M-1 Thompson Submachine-gun, made by - UNKNOWN - original receiver replaced U.S. Army Sergeant 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Sergeant illustrates the equipment that was worn by a NCO assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view, left photo. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, above photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond painted above a white horizontal stripe, which was the designation for Non-Commissioned Officers. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, left photo. This liner was made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA). The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with early zinc plated A washers. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with NCO markings on rear M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Mine Safety Apparatus (MSA) Winter Combat Tanker Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by M.E.CO. 1943 (BRITISH MADE) M-1928 Haversack with M-1928 Pack Carrier, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by BAKER-ATWOOD LTD. CO. 1941 M-1910 Canteen, made by A.G.M.CO. 1918 M-1910 Canteen Cup, made by T.A.U.CO. 1941 M-1923 First Aid Pouch, made by M.W.&S. CO. LTD 1944 (BRITISH MADE) M-1916 Pistol Holster, made by SEARS 1942 M-1910 Entrenching Tool Cover, made by W.L. DUMAS MFG. CO. 1943 M-1910 Entrenching Tool M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by EAGLE RUBBER CO. INC. ASHLAND OHIO M-1 Bayonet, made by United Cutlery (U.C.) M-1 Fragmentation Grenade M-1 Garand Cloth Bandoleer U.S. Army Medic 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a Medic assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond with Medic red crosses painted on the sides and front. Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by FIRESTONE. The suspension is made from Triple Herringbone Twill (THBT) and is held to the liner with green A washers. Service Boots with M-1938 Leggings, left photo. The M-1938 Leggings shown here were made by Meyers & Son MFG. Co. 2-25-42.Service Boots, right photo. The Service Boots were all leather with ten eyelets and featured a full capped toe. The rubber soles were made by EJ HTS. These boots are a size 7 1/2 E. Medic''s bags with contents, left photo. Four types of Carlisle bandages, right photo. Early copper can with orange paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) top, early copper can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) left center, early steel can with olive paint (made by BAUER & BLACK) right center and late steel can with olive drab paint (made by HANDY PAD SUPPLY CO) bottom. Reverse of Medic''s Arm Band (left photo).The arm band is marked: PROPERTY OFMEDICAL DEPARTMENT, U.S. ARMYIN CONFORMITY WITHARTICLE 21 INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS CONVENTIONGENEVA 1929IDENTITY CARD NO. _________This arm band has the Medic''s Geneva Convention Number V 37489. M-1 Helmet and Camouflage Net with Medic''s markings M-1 Helmet Liner, made by FIRESTONE M-1941 Field Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1923 Dismounted Cartridge Belt, made by NERIS 1943 M-1936 Field Musette Bag, made by AIRTRESS MIDLAND 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by FOLEY MFG CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, made by H.S.CO. 1942 M-1910 Canteen, made by VOLLRATH 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by JQMD 1944 Medical Bag, pair M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by THE FIRESTONE TIRE & RUBBER CO. AKRON OHIO U.S. Army Private First Class 2nd Ranger Battalion Omaha Beach - Normandy France June 6th 1944 This Soldier illustrates the equipment that was worn by a rifleman assigned to Force B, Company C, 2nd Ranger Battalion during the invasion of Normandy France June 6th 1944.The responsibility of Force B was to secure the smaller cliffs to the west of Pointe de la Percee. C/2 Rangers landed on the Charlie Sector of Omaha Beach at H+1 (H-Hour plus 1 Minute). After they eliminated the German strong points and gun positions from the right flank of Omaha Beach they were instructed to link up with Force A: D, E and F Company, 2nd Ranger Battalion at Pointe du Hoc. Rear view of M-1 Helmet, left photo. This helmet has been painted with the 2nd Ranger Battalion Diamond. Inside view of M-1 Helmet Liner, right photo. This liner was made by Westinghouse. The suspension is made from Single Herringbone Twill (SHBT) and is held to the liner with black brass A washers. M-1 Helmet M-1 Helmet Liner, made by Westinghouse M-1941 Jacket with Rangers Diamond Patch on left sleeve M-1936 Pistol Belt M-1910 Haversack, made by L-D INC. 7-18 M-1941 Mounted Canteen Cover, owner marked M. KRPAN K-7540 M-1910 Canteen, made by S.M.CO. 1943 M-1942 First Aid Pouch, made by B.B.S.CO. 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by AVERY 1943 M-1 Carbine Magazine Pocket, made by KADY 1943 M-1942 18” Machete, dated 1944 M-7 Assault Gas Mask Carrier USN Life Preserver, made by DURKEE-ATWOOD CO. MPLS. M-1 Carbine Ammunition Bandoleer 1944 B-29 "Super Fortress" 42-24791 "The Big Time Operator"
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TxtMania |. The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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