BIG LIST OF WEBSITES

List of Top Websites on Problematic

Top 250 Websites on PROBLEMATIC

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Last updated on Aug 1 2020.
Here are the best websites we found: clarionledger.com • problematicprocrastinator.tumblr.com • theworldcontinues.tumblr.com • twitterpt.tumblr.com • whiteproblematicyoutubers.tumblr.com • quitbeingproblematic.tumblr.com • yourfaveisproblematic.tumblr.com • dr-myri-blog.blogspot.com • problematicmindpalace.tumblr.com

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The Clarion-Ledger | Mississippi and Jackson Metro''s News Source. Your one stop shop for news, weather, and activities in the Jackson Metro area.
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Problematic Procrastinator. Beth. Studyblr. Writeblr. 19. UK. Hufflepuff. 1st year Creative and professional writing Writer. Anxious human. I track the tag #problematicprocrastinator Never be afraid to ask me stuff
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Problematic.. Jonathan | 20 | Ohio 📷: HausOfJonathan 👻: JonathanTheBae im a one of a kind collectible.
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* &. problematic !. jennie • iono why im still here but i am //
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problematic youtubers
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Your Fav Youtuber is Problematic. This blog serves as an informative collection of problematic behavior among popular youtubers. 
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your fave is problematic. Problematic shit your favorite celebrities have done Please stop sending us fanmail, we do not take requests.
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The Problematic of the Unproblematic. Asian Drama and Squeecaps
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463,764
A Problematic Mind Palace. Multifandom blog with lots of Hannibal, Black Sails, Supernatural, Marvel, and also some occasional other things that catch my eye.
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The Problematic of the Unproblematic. Asian Drama and Squeecaps
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Open Source Security and License Management | WhiteSource. WhiteSource offers an open source license management and security solution. WhiteSource automates the entire process of open source selection, approval, detection of vulnerable or problematic components and remediation. Recognized by Forrester SCA Wave 2017 as best current offering.
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Stopitchy - Problematic Skin SOS - Stopitchy - Eczema Treatment Information Hub, Dermatitis
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Just A Little Bit Problematic. Straight / Female / Anti-Fat Acceptance / Not a Feminist / Sorta Catholic / Sometimes a fitness blog / Wedding obsessed
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Art of Marketing BlogArt of Marketing Blog | Internet Marketing & Make Money Online Product Reviews & Tips. Internet Marketing and Make Money Online Blog - a great place to start, even if you never even made a dime online! Let's make some money :)
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130,392
MangoBaaz - Change the Narrative. MangoBaaz is an online information and entertainment company that creates relevant and engaging content for a young, inquisitive, opinionated, empathetic and bold audience.
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142,792
Next Gen Base - The latest gaming news, previews and reviews as well as unique features, all written by honest and passionate gamers.. The latest gaming news, previews and reviews as well as unique features, all written by honest and passionate gamers.
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Forgotten Word Ministries - False Preachers, False Prophets. False Teachers List & False Prophets Exposed / Problematic Preachers | List of False Teachers of the Prosperity Gospel & NAR: Joel Osteen, Benny Hinn, Rob Bell, Kenneth Copeland, T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, Jesse Duplantis, Joyce Meyer, Rick Warren, Paula White, Kim Clement, Kenneth Hagin, Robert Tilton, Robert Schuller, Juanita Bynum. False Visits to Heaven & Hell, Prosperity Gospel, Emergent Church, Latter Rain
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Home | The Luxury Touch. Premium Beauty & Massage provider in Surrey, specialising on Anti-Ageing Facials, Problematic Skins, Body Treatments including Slimming, Detox & Contouring, and Therapeutic Massage.
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nikki as heeshie. problematic drag queen wannabe, bad poet and rachel dolezal of germany
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Bookish Rita – Welcome to my book-loving corner. Welcome to my book-loving corner
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273,183
SmartPlug Shore Power Connections | what is a smartplug. The SmartPlug is a revolutionary shore power connections system designed to replace the outdated and problematic twist-type design in use today. And what is a smartplug...
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485,363
Corrie Cooks - Instant Pot Recipes. I understand pressure cooking can be messy, problematic and a nightmare if you don’t know what you are doing. My name is Corrie and I'm here to help :)
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Dianna E. Anderson. Dianna E. Anderson, author of Damaged Goods, a book on Christian purity culture and the reclamation of the female body from patriarchal teachings.
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flayrah | furry food for thought. News, features and videos for furry fans. Topics include conventions, games, comics, websites, animals and the media.
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466,229
Protect Your Family from EMF Pollution |. Many people now realize that using Wi-Fi is not wise – both for security and health reasons. Wired Ethernet-based internet access goes a long way toward solving these issues. However, even a wired internet system can cause health effects if setup incorrectly. This is because of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) that many new modems and routers create. This EMI travels along your Ethernet cable to your computer and can become just as problematic as Wi-Fi from a health perspective. In this article, you will learn how to install a wired internet system that produces very little EMI. For electrically sensitive individuals, this will allow you to use your computer for longer periods of time without symptoms. For health-conscious people, this is the next step in creating a truly low-EMF home for you and your family. Before we move on to recommended solutions, I want to explain the primary reasons why EMI is created by a wired internet system: Modems and routers all have a switched-mode power supply (SMPS) that is plugged into an outlet. The EMI created by this SMPS can travel along your electrical wiring and Ethernet cables. You can test this with an AM radio and electric field meter (pictured below). Newer "Gigabit" modems and routers that allow for "blazing fast internet speeds" of 500 or 1,000 mbps create excess high frequency EMI that travels along your Ethernet cable to your computer. Here is a technical explanation as to why this happens. Whenever possible, I suggest you use lower bandwidth equipment rated at 10/100 mbps. This is still fast enough to stream movies on Netflix or YouTube. In some offices and homes, companies will install Power Over Ethernet (PoE). This allows a small amount of electricity to flow through the Ethernet cables, typically to power a phone/modem system in separate rooms. Unfortunately, PoE cables are not shielded for the high amounts of EMI they carry and these systems are very unhealthy for users. Rather than using Wi-Fi or long, shielded Ethernet cables, some people use PLC (power-line communication) systems to transmit internet data around the home on the electrical wiring system. Unfortunately, these PLC systems create an incredibly high amount of EMI ("dirty electricity") on your home wiring. This EMI then radiates into your living environment and is transmitted to your computer. What Does EMI Look Like? In the following images, you can see both high and low EMI readings for a wired laptop. The laptop is running on battery power and utilizes an external keyboard and mouse. The first picture shows very high electric field readings with a typical wired internet system. The second image shows healthy readings (ideally below 3 Volts/meter at your computer). Below the pictures, I explain exactly how to achieve these low EMI readings. Electric field readings of over 100 V/m are highly problematic. Some people feel drained or experience headaches from sitting at their computer and this EMI issue can be the primary cause. Levels this high greatly reduce the amount of time I can spend on a computer without symptoms. This electric field measurement was taken just a couple minutes later once the proper setup was in place. The only difference is there is now almost no EMI transmitted by the Ethernet cable. Electric field readings below 3 V/m are much healthier for any extended use of your computer. How to Set Up a Low-EMF Internet Connection I have experimented with a lot of computer equipment over the years to find brands and models that allow me to work with fewer symptoms. The following is a home internet system that creates low EMI, measured with both an electric field meter and AM radio. If your cable internet provider is any company except AT&T or Verizon, I suggest you get this Arris/Motorola Modem. It is the lowest bandwidth modem I have found at 172 mbps. This is still much more bandwidth than you can likely purchase from your internet provider. The modem is compatible with Comcast and transmits minimal low-frequency EMI from its SMPS. Update May 2019: Several readers have noted that the Arris modem noted above is no longer compatible with Comcast. Instead, I recommend the Arris Surfboard SB6141 or the Arris model TM822G, which you can rent from Comcast or buy online. You will also need a wired router, such as this inexpensive one from TRENDnet or this Netgear router that has an on/off button for WiFi. A router is needed because Comcast and most internet providers do not automatically provide multiple IP addresses. For your router, I would stay away from high-bandwidth devices (1 gigabit and above), such as Netgear routers (unless you occasionally need some wireless capability in your home). When I test these routers, they create an incredible amount of low and high frequency EMI on the Ethernet cables. This will be true for most "Gigabit" routers. Instead, I suggest that you use a simple, low-bandwidth Ethernet switch, such as this 4-port model from TP-Link. Here is an 8-port model if you have many devices. Alternatively, you can can use this wired TRENDnet router, which is especially handy if your modem does not split the IP addresses for you. Both are rated at 10/100 mbps, which is now considered slow. However, this is a good thing from an EMF health perspective! 100 mbps is also more bandwidth than your Internet Service Provider is likely bringing to your home. Both the TP-Link switch and the wired TRENDnet router created very little EMI in my tests. You will then need to purchase two Ethernet cables to connect to your laptop. The reason for purchasing two cables can be seen in the next step. I recommend these thin, shielded Cat-7 cables. Two 25-foot cables are ideal, but you can get shorter or longer cables based on your needs. You will also need a short cable to place between your modem and the Ethernet switch. The final step to have a low-EMF internet connection is to utilize an Ethernet ground adapter. This ground adapter will be placed in between your two Ethernet cables and will ground most of the lower-frequency EMI (below 1 MHz) so that it is not being transmitted to your computer. You will run the first Ethernet cable from your switch to the ground adapter. Then you will run your second cable from the ground adapter to your computer. Here is a picture showing what the ground adapter looks like. Note that LessEMF now also has their own Ethernet ground adapter. I have used this as well with good results. An Ethernet Ground Adapter will reduce much of the EMI flowing to your computer. [The above video will show you some of the steps I take to reduce the EMI at my computer.] [This new video (2018) shows you the specific items that will allow you to ground your Ethernet connection if you do not have access to an electrical ground in your home. You will need two shielded CAT-7 or CAT-6 cables, a ground adapter, a gator-to-gator clip, a 50' extension cable and a thin 2' copper stake that you can buy for about $2 at your local hardware store or from LessEMF. The total cost for this setup is approximately $75. If you create your own system, just make sure you have metal-to-metal all the way to the ground outside and that the electric fields at your computer are below 2 V/m.] Whether you are electrically sensitive or you simply want to have a healthier home for your family, the above solution will make quite a difference. Many people are now aware that Wi-Fi is dangerous. However, microwave radiation from wireless technology is only one part of the EMF equation. Electromagnetic interference can be just as problematic and could be the reason why you experience symptoms from computer use. Hopefully this article will help you have a truly healthy, low-EMF internet connection for many years to come. Note: If you would like to obtain an EMF meter to check the electric fields at your computer, I suggest either the Gigahertz Solutions ME3830B or ME3851A (pictured above). I discuss on this page how to order and get a discount on these EMF meters. I also suggest the Radio Shack AM Radio Model 12-467 that can be found on ebay. You can always contact me to discuss how to do this. You can download a printable PDF of this article here. This article was updated May 2019.
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Josie Holford: Rattlebag and Rhubarb | . We awaited demobilisation All that winter of 1918 While we toiled in the grime of Taranto Loading ammo and cleaning latrines When they treated the whites to a pay rise It was like someone lobbed a grenade All our years of resentment exploded Saying, to hell with their rules and parades From No Parades by Chris Hoban. Listen here: Chris Hoban's song pretty much sums up the experience of the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR) in WW1. (And do give it a listen - it's haunting in its story-telling and evocation of the music of the period.) It's a story of how racism bigotry and mistreatment betrayed the loyalty, patriotism and courage of 15,000 men all of whom volunteered to fight for the Empire. It's also a story of mutiny, colonialism and the kickstart of the movement for self-determination and independence. What first spiked my interest in the BWIR was reading through the names in the record book of the Taranto Town Cemetery Extension. The Town Cemetery was used for British and Empire burials from June 1915 to April 1919, but by January 1918, it was necessary to open a military extension. After the Armistice the 102 Commonwealth burials in the town cemetery were removed to this extension. There are now 449 WW1 Commonwealth burials in the extension. There among the names of the dead are 147 from the British West Indies Regiment. Why were they there and what had happened to them? I started to get interested in the history of the regiment and that of course led to the Taranto mutiny of the winter of 1918-1919. Here's the story. Background to the Mutiny Taranto is an industrial town on the Mediterranean. Italy entered the war on the Allied side in May 1915 and the Royal Navy began using Taranto as a Mediterranean base soon thereafter. Taranto became a key transit point on the supply lines to and from Egypt. Mesopotamia, Palestine and Salonika. Lines of communication were established between the eastern theaters of war that ran then through Taranto, Turin, Lyons and Le Mans to Cherbourg It's where ships came in to re-coal and where troops passed through on their way from the near east to the Western Front or back to Britain. A huge tented encampment was set up to accommodate them and No 79 General and No 6 Labour Hospitals followed with more permanent brick and concrete structures added over time. It was a base and rest camp and labour units, including the 8th, 10th and 11th Battalions, British West Indies Regiment, were brought in to service the camp as well as load and unload the ships and trains. In 1915 the British War Office - which had initially opposed recruitment of West Indian troops - created the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR). It served in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In spite of promises made at the time of recruitment, BWIR did not give black soldiers from the West Indies the opportunity to fight as equals alongside white soldiers. Instead, the War Office largely limited this trained infantry regiment to labour duties. Over 15,600 West Indian men volunteered for the BWIR, two-thirds of whom were from Jamaica. Others came from Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Grenada, British Guiana (now Guyana), the Leeward Islands, St Lucia and St Vincent. 185 were killed and 1,071 died of illness as a result of the war. The first battalions of the BWIR were stationed on the Suez Canal and were first used as labour battalions. They saw front line service in Palestine and Jordan serving with distinction as part of General Allenby's force that drove out the Turks and contributed to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. They earned medals and commendations for bravery and were mentioned in despatches. Later BWIR battalions were sent to the Western Front and then to Italy where they served in auxiliary roles that included digging trenches, construction of roads and gun emplacements, acting as stretcher bearers, loading ships and trains, and working in ammunition dumps. This was dangerous work often carried out in France and Flanders within range of German artillery and sniper fire. After the Armistice in November 1918, eight battalions of the BWIR – 8000 or so men - were stationed at Taranto in preparation for demobilization. They were joined by the battalions returning from Egypt and Mesopotamia many of whom had served in combat. Long standing grievances and growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues had been brewing for some time and in early December they erupted. This was a time of uprisings, riots and disturbances across the British Army. Men who had signed on for duration wanted to go home and get on with their lives. Mutiny and revolution were in the air. The BWIR had some very specific long-standing grievances and a growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues and in December 1918 they reached boiling point. The underlying issue was of course the betrayal of the promise made to them at recruitment: that they would be treated on an equal footing with the other regiments of the British army. Instead they had been primarily used for manual labor and treated as 'native" labor battalions and not as front line troops. Although designated as an infantry regiment and entitled to the same terms of service as other British regiments, commanders and officials often subjected the BWIR to the menial conditions dictated for 'native' corps. Military commanders and officials regarded the BWIR as inferior and treated them accordingly. On the Western Front they were excluded from facilities enjoyed by other British soldiers. The medical care and recreational facilities offered to West Indian troops was often inferior as a result. Estaminets – simple civilian-run cafes that offered the ubiquitous egg-and-chips respite from army food - were off-limits for Chinese and African Labour battalions and that restriction was extended to the BWIR, even though they were officially a unit of the British army. When they were wounded or became sick they were treated in 'native' hospitals and received poor treatment. Commissioned officer rank was restricted to those of 'pure" European descent and pay increases, granted to the British army in 1917, were withheld until protests from West Indian soldiers. Equally problematic was the official reluctance to deploy West Indians as combat troops. It meant that they had fewer opportunities to show the battlefield courage so prized by the military; fewer opportunities for medals and decorations. Their contribution - carrying ammunition, loading trains, building roads, railways and gun emplacements, cleaning latrines, cooking, carrying the wounded, digging trenches and graves, clearing the deadly debris of battle - had none of the supposed warrior glamour and glory of the battlefield. Ironically, it was the labour battalions that built the graveyards and cemeteries that are the symbols of remembrance. The Black Soldier's Lament – written by Canadian veteran George A. Borden in the 1980s - reflects the bitter disappointment of the injustice, the sense of shame and loss of manhood. At Taranto, soldiers reported being ostracized: "since we came here, we couldn't understand why these British soldiers they didn't seem to want any attachment with us. We had always seemed to get on good together in Egypt," a soldier from British Guiana recalled. They were given labour duties, loading and unloading ships and trains, as well as being ordered to clean latrines for white units. Meanwhile, sick and wounded BWIR men continued to succumb to illness and disease. In August 1918,12 men from Barbados had signed a respectful petition (you can read it here) outlining their grievances about pay pointing out that soldiers from white regiments had received a pay increase while they – together with "native" regiments - had not. They specifically identified this as a betrayal of the promises made to them at the time of recruitment. In addition, black soldiers had not been permitted to rise through the ranks, despite good recommendations. The Hon. J C Lynch, Chair of the Recruiting Committee, sent a letter in support of the petition indicating the justice of the claims. He also described the respectable (middle class) and often professional or land-owning backgrounds from which these men came. The 12 signatories were Joseph Chamberlain Hope DCM, Vernon G Thomas, Edward E. Packer, Vincent Lionel Talma, Leslie A. Greaves, John Berkeley Johnson, L'Estrand C. Deane, Alexander L. Marshall, Lashington L. Skinner, T Thompson, Herman P.J. Ince, and G.F. Bowen. Nothing came of this petition. After Armistice Day, on November 11 1918, the eight BWIR battalions in Europe were concentrated at Taranto in Italy to prepare for demobilization. They were subsequently joined by the battalions from Egypt and Mesopotamia. The combat veterans arriving in Taranto from the east were subjected to the same discrimination and second class status and treatment as the labour battalions. Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard was base commandant known for his strict segregationist regulations. According to some accounts, the men had been refused leave to enter town and he forbade black soldiers from using facilities alongside white soldiers. They had separate canteens they were not allowed to go to the cinema when white troops were there. When sick they were sent to the 'native' hospital where they received inferior treatment. They were prevented from being able to rise through the ranks. They were employed on fatigues and laboring duties in spite of assurances that this would not happen. All of these men had volunteered to serve and all of this was counter to the promises of equal treatment and opportunity they had been given on recruitment. Discontent was rife at Taranto just as it was across a broad spectrum of the British Army in the weeks after the Armistice. Canadian troops stationed in Britain, for example, staged three major riots. The BWIR had quite specific and particular grievances however, and they arose from the unequal and demeaning treatment they received. Soldiers returning from the Middle East had enlisted first and were ready to be mobilized. They resented being used as porters for white soldiers in transit and they resented being subject to the rigid segregation policies that barred them from equal access to canteens and cinemas. The designation "native" was imposed denying the BWIR access to proper medical facilities Major Thursfield of the 5th battalion protested to the camp commandant Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard about the betrayal of the promises made to the men. Cary-Barnard was a decorated veteran of the Boer War where he served with Lumsden's Horse. He served with distinction on the Western Front. He was decorated for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, wounded, mentioned in despatches and promoted. And from October 1917, to 31 January 1919 he was Base Commandant, Taranto. At camp commander, Cary-Barnard had a reputation for harsh discipline and a dismissive attitude toward the legitimate grievances of the men of the BWIR. Field punishment was meted out for even trivial offenses removing the discretion from junior officers whose attitudes he regarded as too lenient. Cary-Barnard's response to Thursfield's protest was abrupt, brutal, racist and dismissive. The men were only niggers… no such treatment should ever have been promised them …they were better fed and treated than any nigger had a right to expect… he would order them to do whatever work he pleased, and if they objected he would force them to do it. On 6 December 1918, sergeants from the BWIR forwarded a petition with 180 names to the Secretary of State repeating the demands of the earlier petition, including for the pay increase granted by Army Order No.1 1918 to all Imperial troops. They also expressed their resentment at being barred from the possibility of rising through the ranks and outlined some of the history of West Indian service in the British forces where this color bar was not observed. They also requested an increase in the separation pay – money that was sent home to help their families. Inflation and war profiteering had led to huge increases in the prices of basic commodities and their families were suffering hardship in their absence. Captain Reginald Elgar Willis of the 9th battalion had travelled with the fifth contingent from Kingston on March 30th 1917. Promoted to Lt.Col., Willis had a reputation as a harsh disciplinarian. On December 6th 1918, ordered his men to clean the latrines used by Italian laborers. They refused and some men surrounded his tent and slashed at it with knives and bayonets before dispersing. There was some shooting and wild talk. Some men made demands that demobilization process be speeded up so that they would be home by Christmas. The next day the 9th and 10th battalions refused to work and there were clashes. They were forcibly disarmed and ordered on a route march. On December 8th, Pte. Samuel Pinnock was killed by Acting Sgt, Robert Richards who was charged with negligently discharging his rifle and was sentenced to four months labor. This was the only fatality during the mutiny period. Unrest and insubordination continued for four days with men refusing refusing orders and refusing to work. Unnerved, the military authorities reacted harshly and swiftly. The camp commander requested support and a battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment and a machine gun company were order to Taranto traveling "in fighting order with ammunition in their pouches". The mutineers were arrested. The 9th battalion was disbanded and the men distributed among the other battalions. The whole regiment was disarmed. Sixty men were charged with mutiny and 47 were found guilty. Most received sentences of between 3-5 years. One man - Pte. Arthur Sanches - who was considered the ringleader - was sentenced to death. This sentence was commuted to 20 years penal servitude. (He did not serve full term as in 1934 he was a member of the delegation that presented a petition to the Governor of Jamaica – Sir Arthur Jelf - requesting improvements to the roads and water service supply on the lands granted to ex servicemen.) Many accounts state that one man was executed for his part in the mutiny. This does not seem to be correct. One man was shot at dawn on January 20th 1919. He was Pte. Albert Denny of the 8th battalion who was executed by firing squad for the murder of Pte. Edgar Hilkiah Best 13573 10th Battalion of Barbados in a robbery on the 5th of September. The British authorities did make concessions and mobilization plans were speeded up. The Colonial Office prevailed on the War Office and in February 1919 the BWIR got, in full, the increased separation allowances withheld from them in the Army Order No.1. Even after the courts-martial the spirit of resistance continued. Some of those who who had been convicted and repatriated to the West Indies staged further revolts; disturbances occurred on the SS Orca which docked at Kingston, Jamaica. There, BWIR men allied themselves with seamen repatriated from Britain to protest their treatment. There was also discontent at Plymouth where in February 1919 four men of the BWIR were found guilty and received 2 years detention. In the midst of an even harsher camp regime enforced after the revolt, on December 17th 50-60 sergeants of the BWIR met and formed the Caribbean League. They held four meetings in December and early January and discussed not only their grievances but also their plans for what to do when they returned home. Out of their discussions emerged a sense of a pan-Caribbean identity and political awakening. They called for greater cooperation between the islands and mainland Caribbean territories and they talked of seeking independence and self-determination. At the second meeting one man - Sgt. Baxter - said that the black man "should have freedom and govern himself in the West Indies" and that "force must be used and if necessary blood shed to obtain the object". Such words would have alarmed the colonial establishment and probably drowned out the more modest aim of the League, "the Promotion of all matters conducive to the General Welfare of the islands constituting the British West Indies and the British Territories adjacent thereto." They agreed to strike for higher wages on their return home. They talked of a Caribbean–wide governing body with a headquarters in Kingston, although the choice of Jamaica led to some inter-island rivalry and controversy about the location.This was a distinctly social democratic and reformist agenda but also problematic for those determined to maintain the status quo of economic and power arrangements. At first the Caribbean League was treated with cautious approval by the military authorities as they saw it as a way to help contain and manage the discontent of the troops. At one of the later meetings however, one of the participants - Sgt. Leon Poucher, a Trinidadian reported to his commanding officer that they talk had turned toward self-government and strike action. This concern was relayed to the colonial authorities in the West Indies who were spooked by the thought of thousands of radicalized and angry ex-servicemen returning to their homes determined to seek change. The Caribbean League did not survive demobilization which was completed by August 1919. Although it was short-lived it seems to have had a powerful and radicalizing impact on those who participated. It gave rise to a new and confident voice of resistance that was to make an impact on the politics and social conditions of the post-war Caribbean. Take a look at this poem written at the time:Before enlisting Monteith had been a school teacher in Jamaica. He had written a number of patriotic poems praising the war effort and the Empire that had been published in the Jamaican Times. These words reflect a personal transformation and a new political outlook that many of the men of the BWIR would take home with them. In some ways this new spirit was presaged by the thinking at enlistment. By joining the imperial war effort to fight for king and country many hoped to prove something. Look at this 1915 article in the Jamaican journal the Grenada Federalist: As coloured people we will be fighting for something more, something inestimable to ourselves. We will be fighting to prove to Great Britain that we are not so vastly inferior to the white. We will be fighting to prove that we are no longer merely subjects but citizens – citizens of a world empire whose watch word should be Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood. The was an opportunity to show proof of worth, of the right of equality and freedom. Deliberately keeping these men from the combat duties of the front line served to thwart those aspirations. It had instead another outcome - that of radicalizing a generation of activists. In the West Indies, a number of BWIR soldiers played important roles in the growth of the working class, union and independence movements. They organized unions, led protests, contributed to reform movements and they laid the groundwork for the move to self-determination and independence. The BWIR served honorably in the Egypt, the Middle East, on the Western Front and in Italy. When given the opportunity, they proved themselves as combat troops. Faced with discrimination and humiliation they fought back against injustice. The BWIR was kept away from the victory parades that marked the end of the war. It was disbanded in 1921. In spite of their efforts, a confidential 1919 Colonial Office memo on the Taranto mutiny makes it clear that the British Government realized that things had changed: Nothing we can do will alter the fact that the black man has begun to think and feel himself as good as the white. Sources: The National Archive (UK) Imperial War Museum No Labour, No Battle: Military Labour During the First World War, Ivor Lee and John Starling Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia, Winston James Race, Empire and First World War Writing, Santanu Das (editor)
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This Is Cable. Sometimes people get confused over the various options which are available for them online as well as offline. It becomes even more problematic when you have access to the products both in your local market and also through online resources. It is quite
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Be Clear To Hear With Otex Ear Drops. Otex is the UK's number one best-selling, clinically proven and dual action formula for effectively treating and dealing with problematic ear wax.
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Therapeutic Services, Adolescent Mental Health - All About Change - Greenville, Sc. All About Change Greenville SC 29615 864-509-0774 Upstate of South Carolina We are a community based and in-home therapeutic and support service provider for individuals, families and couples with unique needs. We specialize in working with children, adolescents and young adults and their family members or caregivers in crisis. Our therapists are skilled at working with the most difficult issues including trauma, sexual abuse, attachment, anxiety, ADHD, substance abuse, behavior and personality disorders. Therapeutic Services Trauma Focused Assessment and Therapy to Address Developmental Trauma Including Severe Sexual Abuse Placement Disruption Prevention Sibling / Caregiver Bond Assessments / Adoptive Home Studies Psychosexual Assessment / Therapy for Sexually Problematic Behaviors in Children and Teens Including Sexual Aggression and Adjudicated Youth Forensic Assessment and Counseling Plan of Care Development Case Management Intensive Family Intervention and Crisis Management Individual Therapy Play Therapy Family Therapy Animal Assisted Group Therapy Couples Therapy Behavioral Intervention and Paraprofessional Support Services Educational Consultation Training, Licensure Supervision LPC and LMFT) Consultation and Expert Witness Services
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Baleen Process Solutions | A Nalco Champion Service Partner. Complex, offshore, water, challenges, produced, Challenging, Problematic, Oilfield, waste, problems, Acid, Completion, Flowback, Pipeline, Dewater, BALEEN, PS,
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This is a blog to talk about what we call as Anti-culture. Send me in any post from anti's that are problematic or send me in your experiences to help me shed some light on this nasty internet culture. Shalasquad.
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Ask Me About My OCs. She/they/he pronouns. This is my crappy fandom blog where I do whatever I want, still feel free to message me if a source is highly problematic or if I forget to tag a trigger This blog is TAZ:...
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Flowing Straight From The Survival Scroll. I'm Ari, the feisty one and I'm not problematic no more. I've been delivert.
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deep in this sleeplessness. ☆Katie | artist/cosplayer | 21 | MN | crybaby | problematic shipper☆ Welcome to my trashcan! Enjoy your stay!
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TEENS PALAVA – A HOME OF ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS. LETS' DEAL WITH THE PALAVA TOGETHER. The world is becoming more problematic. Young ones do not even know where to turn to or to whom to run. Teen-age issues varies from country to country but however they have some similarities. These issues are PALAVAs and they range from academics to financial, family, society, friends, church, love, sex, relationship, esteem and even spiritual. WHAT THEN…
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Home | BounceBox SPC. BounceBox SPC is a communication design and branding studio based in Seattle, Washington.We help our clients resolve problematic & ambiguous situations, express themselves, and move their ventures forward through smart, resonant, effective & (hopefully) beautiful work.
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FEDCAS | Federal Clearance Assistance Service. Federal Security Clearance Assistance Service - FEDCAS offers an array of services designed to handle problematic case at each stage of the security clearance process.
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Quiet life. Ravenclaw, Chaotic Good, INTJ, taurus, problematic. follow me on my little blog: http//www.tumblr.com/blog/little-yellow-one
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Home | Indoor air quality monitor | Airovita | O2/CO2 Monitor. The Airovita S1 is an all in one indoor air quality monitor for CO2 en O2 monitoring The CO2 Oxygen sensor allows continuous monitoring of indoor air quality in spaces where healthy CO2 oxygen values can be problematic Off balance oxygen and carbon dioxide levels can have a negative effect on a persons health ability to concentrate and overall wellbeing
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Communist Propaganda. Roboposts images from a collection of 5650 propaganda posters. Some of these posters may be problematic but I can't read moon runes so I can't figure out which ones. In either case it would be a...
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Time Fiddler. A time travel yuri romance webcomic about girls who fall in love with problematic crushes -- Written and Illustrated by Ellis Kim. Sam Fiddler finds herself falling for her mentor, a mysterious and...
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trash can. maria. moscow, russia. art tag • FAQ • commissions info • instagram continually drooling over good-looking men and problematic fictional characters. COMMISSIONS STATUS: WAITING LIST
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❤All Ships❤. A shipping blog spreading positivity for those shipping "problematic" things. All ships are welcome! We do fanmixes and aesthetic requests! etc Please read our about pages before messaging us, thank...
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Intersectional Feminism. She/her | sexual assault awareness, LGBTQIA+ positivity, reproductive rights, social justice | no terfs, swerfs, or aphobes | don't hesitate to call me out on anything problematic!
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The Art of Madness. I like mad science, monsters, horror, bats, rats, cats, Steven Universe, World of Warcraft, Warhammer, and Pathfinder/D&D. I also draw and craft stuff sometimes. I also tend to really like problematic...
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for the ones who dream of stranger worlds. rachael. xxvii. bi girl. infp. daydreamer. hopeless romantic. mom friend. lover of period dramas, books, and dogs. **lila bard is my problematic fave
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Microsoft Dynamics Navision Special Tips. By obtaining most essential and facts which cannot be found easily in the sections of functional and development the user of Microsoft Dynamics Navision ERP has been helped and eased to use. Our aim is giving you the capability of working as an experienced Navision user by giving knowledge and by letting you to know the novel facts in the field. We have utmostly worked to make you aware of the facts which are being updated day by day and to supply the solutions to most of the problematic situations. Through this we invite you to be a competent Microsoft Dynamics Navision user.
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Foster The People. Welcome to my blog dedicated to the most problematic band to ever exist
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Right From the Hip | Observations & Opinions | Politics, Law & Current Events. In which our Vagabond Seeks a City in Motion. It is early Saturday evening, the doors are open, the coffee house beckons. I enter into a crowd – young and old, in pairs, groups and singles, are standing in line, checking their phones, reviewing the menu board, sitting astride chairs, leaning on counters, stirring their mugs, contemplating their next move, and conversing with animation and verve. After securing a mug of herbal orange blossom tea and plain pound cake (something different and contemplative), no booths are available. I occupy a seat at a long, central bench and table with the other patrons. Immediately next to me sits a young couple, face to face, wearing various shades of blue denim (she also sports a floppy, soft-brim robin egg blue hat), who have stopped talking to enjoy one of the house's calorie-generous desserts. Their desserts are laden with strawberries, fresh, fragrant, jumbo-sized, strawberries, tumbling generously, abundantly, off the dessert cakes which shyly peek out underneath. These are six-dollar desserts, suitable for serious courtship. The whipped cream had disappeared already. Their strawberries are not shy - they flaunt their bright deep red strawberry color, their inviting texture, they flirt their white edges. These strawberries profligately cast about their unmistakable ripe fragrance. Indeed, the fragrance demands attention. For an unmeasured moment, these strawberries own the bench and my perceptions – my other senses have quietly stepped down and wait for the strawberry fragrance to master the stage, to take its bows, to aromatically speak for strawberries everywhere. Each strawberry is joined with all strawberries - connected in a web of genetic code, agricultural pedigree, sense perception and idea. The smell, the fragrance and appearance of these strawberries, and for a distinct slice of time, the connected picture, the taste, the idea of many strawberries, all strawberries, as an adjective as well as a noun, occupy my thoughts. If there had been no name for strawberries ever given, I would have conjured a name for them, then and there. Strawberries are versatile. We can give Latin names to their various genus, Fragaria. We may note that each apparent achene, or seed, on the outside is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it, perhaps explaining why the couple beside me ordered them for dessert. Philosophers might debate whether or not there exists a non-physical essence of strawberry, an ideal Platonic form of strawberry, or be skeptical that we could ever be sure that what we perceive as strawberry was reliable. Mischievous children have picked them to throw at each other. We can observe them on wild vines, clip, transplant and cultivate them in our gardens, study what combination of sun and water gives them the greatest growth and sweetest flavor, pick them gingerly to set at our breakfast table, eat them singly or in groups in little morning fruit bowls. We have financed agri-businesses to grow them in vast number, might someday sell strawberry futures on a commodities exchange, have hired agricultural workers to pick them in mass quantity. Graduate students in economics might measure the economic impact of establishing a minimum wage for strawberry pickers, while employers make certain their immigration papers are in order. We can contest the right of strawberry pickers to go on strike, and use courtrooms to enjoin secondary strikes by other fruit pickers. Independent truck drivers can transport them in refrigerated, insured freight carriers at free-on-board rates. District managers of supermarket chains can offer them for retail sale in little green baskets at trendy supergrocers which have memorable advertising logos and trained-to-be-friendly checkout people, and serve them in coffee houses at upscale prices. In laboratories we can measure their molecular carbon chains, forensically identify them with gas and mass chromatography, and fit them into biochemical schema of study. We can mash them into lipstick or cream for purposes of skin and beauty enhancement, advertised by slender, photogenic models. We can handwash our dirty dishes in our neglected kitchen sinks, or shampoo our thinning hair with liquid soaps flavored with them. No small series of achievements, for an aggregate accessory fruit. But we have strawberries as descriptors also, as concepts and additions to the language in which we think and speak and describe, in which we write poetry and love sonnets. They act as triggers or stimulants, to remind us of things, things we may want to remember. I bend my head over my tea and soak a piece of my cake into my orange-blossom tea. But these strawberries are not yet done their work. The fragrances of my coffee-house neighbors' strawberries trigger vivid memories. A series of pictures is summoned up, interior miniatures composing a sequenced event in my life, a road trip of an altogether different sort. Gently unfaded, affectionately insistent, parading in silence one at a time yet making a whole, a set of gliding images from the past paints over my vision. ____________________ My wife, Erma, and I were dating, and engaged. I was just 32. At the time, she was just 23 years of age, not quite 5'2" unless she stood on her tiptoes (she was generous in describing her height on various health and application forms), slender, lithe, with quick, athletic reflexes, light brown hair never allowed to grow long, a bright upturned face full of energy, green-grey eyes that were never quite the same shade from day to day, and a stand-your-ground manner suitable for the youngest child who had five older brothers. Erma had been a Christian since her experiences as a teenager in church youth group, and had been well taught by a beloved senior pastor, Reverend Pusey. She could field a ground ball or steal third base, tell every player on the Philadelphia Flyers in 1977 (she still had a Bobby Clark doll) or quote scripture by memory, intelligently and to the point under discussion. She was a secretary at DuPont, a job she had held since the day after she graduated from high school. There was emotional trauma in her childhood, including a miserable relationship with her father (the misery shared by her brothers and sister), and a tragic gun accident which took the life of one of her brothers, after her father irresponsibly brought home a rifle and gave it to his children without supervision or safety instruction. The collapse of the family unit brought economic difficulties. Erma bubbled over with hope and energy – she was ready to wrestle wildcats, hid her fears, counted her pennies, and laughed loudly and easily. Erma pooled shock, grief, loss and anger in reservoirs of her soul. She introduced herself to a pair of young men attending a Christian singles conference in Sandy Cove, Maryland, one of whom was me, because she recognized the church my friend Dave had announced at the beginning of the conference, and that was enough of a conversational opening for her. We took a trip to North Carolina, to visit her brother Noel, the only one of her family to graduate from college. Noel was a marketing manager for a large agricultural chemicals company, and he was moved about the country every few years. For several years he had lived near Research Triangle Park outside Raleigh. Our trip was a happy one; we packed up Erma's silver Honda Civic, years old but running like a Swiss watch, and toodled down the highway one Monday in the early summer. Life was opening up. My disorderly life, spread across two coasts, was moving in a good direction. Erma, deeply emotionally cautious, was hoping that the world held good things as well. After staying the first night with friends in Virginia, we arrived after a day of easy driving at Noel's, still single. As always, he was a gracious host, owner of a sensible but well-maintained home. His practice of buying and selling homes as he was transferred around the company proved to be economically rewarding. I don't know whether he liked his job in its own right, but years later when he was offered a retirement package at the age of 50, he took it, and to my knowledge, has never worked 9-5 job since. Noel was working 9-5 when we arrived though, so during the day we were left to our own devices around Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Durham and the surrounding areas. Open to guidebook suggestions, we went to the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel HiIl. We walked the displays of native plants, violet-purple iris, milkweed, wood anemone, maidenhair ferns, wild indigo, water-plaintains, bluestars. The Gardens have a display of carnivorous plants, pitcher plants, Venus fly traps, along with their orchids and lilies. I found a very tiny spider among the carnivorous plant displays, picked him up with a leaf, and deposited him into a Venus fly-trap, which promptly, as advertised, closed its tender petals. The wispy trigger hairs of the plant quite quickly formed a bars-of-a-jail cell effect as the plant's leaves closed reflexively – I could see the tiny spider, looking out, as forlorn and puzzled as any prisoner would be. At the time, I had nothing to say to him, and regretted somewhat causing his fate. With the advantages of hindsight and advancing years, today, I might encourage him with words of sympathy – "you and me both, brother," a final salute, issued nunc pro tunc. Erma and I went to see a movie in the evening. Mr. Hulot's Holiday. Monsier Hulot, the French actor Jacques Tati, "decides to vacation at a beautiful seaside, resort. Rest and relaxation don't last long, given the gangly gent's penchant for ridiculous antics." Released in 1954, you have to be in the right mood to see this slapstick farce. Erma and I were nearly alone in the theater, it was a Tuesday evening. We were in the mood – I laughed hard. Erma laughed uproariously, full volume. I never heard anyone laugh so hard – her cackles filled the theater – no nook or cranny escaped the piercing volume of her laughter. Many times. How can you not fall in love with a girl like that? If anyone else was in the theater at all (maybe one other couple), they certainly knew they weren't alone. The next day, we visited Duke University in Durham. The lawns and grounds were green, immaculate, carefully maintained; the buildings, the Chapel, all were elite-college campus beautiful. I daresay visiting parents longed to expend vast sums of money to send their children there. After walking around for several hours, near the end of the day, we found a small restaurant/coffee-shop. Because of the day and hour we were again nearly alone. The shop featured a strawberry desert, loaded with whipped cream. They were the freshest, sweetest, most flagrantly-and-fragrantly-delicious strawberries imaginable. It was a lifetime trophy desert. The taste, the aroma of the strawberries filled our noses, our palates, our tongues – our sweet, ripe taste buds went off like bells. Erma was just swooning with joy. It seemed as if we just sat and ate for hours (which could not possibly be true), as if the strawberry dessert stopped local time to go on forever. These strawberries had royal, domestic, South American and continental antecedents. According to Wikipedia, the garden strawberry was first grown or bred in Brittany, France in the 1750s by crossing Fragaria Virginia from eastern North America with Fragaria Chiloenses, brought from Chile. The French began harvesting wild strawberries in the 14th century. Strawberries were added to cream in the Court of King Henry VIII. What can I add to that? World production of strawberries is in excess of nine million tons, and not a strawberry too many. After we had spent a few days at Noel's, we drove east to go to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Outer Banks are a resort area, but wilder, less cultivated than the homogenized resort areas one sometimes visits. We rented two separate hotel rooms to stay in the area around Kitty Hawk. I had sexual relationships prior to becoming a Christian. Erma had many dating relationships, but had learned her sexual ethics as a teenager at a conservative, evangelical church and drew a line she believed in. We did not sleep together on that trip. It helped to make our dating relationship simple, clean, pure, uncomplicated. (Our physical relationship began on our honeymoon - when Erma exited the bathroom and entered our bedroom the evening of our 11 a.m. wedding in Bear, Delaware. We had driven to a bed and breakfast in Milford, New Jersey, Linda and Rob Castagna's Chestnut Hill on the Delaware River. Looking at the teddy-bear decorated bed and room in the honeymoon suite and at me, Erma asked, "do you think we should pray?" I answered, "I already have.") But that wedding ceremony day was still in our distance, like a beckoning city on a hill. The next day on our excursion to North Carolina, we traipsed about on the Kitty Hawk beach. It was not yet warm enough for swimming; the beaches were nearly empty. I discovered that small fish, mullets or small kingfish, filled some of the deeper surf pools and beach ponds left by retreating waves. There is a picture of me taken by Erma, bending over at the waist, looking down, with my pants rolled up as I stood in the middle of one of these surf pools, wearing a plaid shirt with the sleeves rolled up, trying to catch little silver fish with my bared, cupped hands. Trying to catch small fish by hand was a predictably unsuccessful effort, but loads of fun to try. I looked perfectly ridiculous, and we were perfectly happy. On our trip back in the silver Honda Civic from North Carolina, driving north to Wilmington and Phoenixville, we sang hymns on the road. Neither Erma or I have any musical talent at all - neither of us can carry a melody. But there was no music critic in the car, no one to be distressed. We sang "Fairest Lord Jesus," in toneless acapella - it fit our mood and excursion well. _______________________ I was interrupted in my coffee-house reveries by a young man, of Asian background, whose face I recognized, but whose name I didn't know. He had been listening to me a previous week, when I was proclaiming out loud verses from the Book of Revelation, the lake of fire verses, the judgment verses, on a previous morning when the coffee house was much emptier than it was that Saturday evening. His interruption lead into quite an extended discussion, carried out over three locations in the coffee house. "Hello," he said. I responded with my own 'hello.' "I saw you here the other week. You were reading out loud. I was standing over there" – he indicated where he had been standing when I had my brief confrontation with the coffee house manager, Jen, over reading Bible verses out loud. I nodded 'yes' and offered my hand and introduced myself. "My name is Qi," he introduced himself with a small but perceptible bob of the head. His English was good, with a slight British accent. Qi looked to be in his early twenties, fifty years younger than I. His hair was black parted on one side, his chin and cheeks clean-shaven, his eyes brown, his lashes somewhat long, his build slim, probably 5' 10" in height and weighing 140 or 150 pounds, wearing blue jeans and a neat maroon pullover jersey. His facial expression was respectful, intelligent and friendly. "I wanted to ask you. Why were you reading out loud? And why did you choose those verses?" I had to think to recreate my thoughts and mood the previous week. "I can't answer that easily. God moves inside me without giving me explanations. Why those verses? I felt like I wanted to get somewhere - we ought to get somewhere. I saw those verses on the path." "I heard what you said to the manager. The owner doesn't mind?" His expression suggested that people reading out loud in a coffee house crossed a line in the culture he came from. "No," I told him, "the owner doesn't mind." We paused our conversation for a moment, so Qi could find a way around the bench and people to squeeze in opposite me. He was sitting right next to the strawberry-eating couple, also seated across each other on the bench, as I was. "Do you work, or are you a student?" I asked. Qi explained his background to me, responding to my questions. He was 23 years old, a graduate student seeking a Master's degree in statistics from the graduate department of a nearby university. He was an exchange student, a resident of China, whose family came from near Beijing. Much of his life was not spent in China however. His father was an investment banker, and they spent a number of years in different countries and cities, including London, where he learned as a teenager to speak English well, and learned his slight but discernible British accent. He was one of three children, and had two sisters, one older, who was married and living near Shanghai, and one considerably younger sister, who was living at home near Beijing, where his parents had returned. I asked him about China's one-child policy and he explained that his father had sufficient resources to obtain relief from the rule. Since the first child in the family was a daughter, apparently this exception was not difficult to obtain with respect to Qi. Having official sanction for having a third child was more difficult, but by then his father had political and economic connections. By this time the strawberry dessert-eating couple had left. Their seats were taken by others so it wasn't always easy to conduct our conversation. The coffee house was noisy, there was music in the background and people were sliding behind us at times to reach seats further down the long benches on which Qi and I were seated. When I paused my deposition-like questions, I asked if he attended any local church. He did, he explained, and had been for about a year. "What did you think when I read those verses out loud?" I asked. "How did you react?" "I like hearing the Book of Revelation read aloud. It doesn't often get read out loud. When you hear a sermon, somebody tells you what to think about it. There's always a doctrine or a system. Everything has to be explained." He thought for a few moments. "There's more in the words, than there is in the explanations." He said, and I quietly nodded in agreement. "Well, if you just listen to the words, read by somebody else, you wouldn't have a system," I offered. "You might have a language, though. A set of mutual symbols. Even if we didn't agree on what they meant." He listened to what I said and we talked about language, and symbols. His criticisms of symbolic language were well-thought out; a person whose native tongue is Chinese understands well the strengths and weaknesses of symbols to communicate. I suggested that symbols and graphic pictures cut through many language systems. The phrase "a woman clothed with the sun," eludes precise rational understanding, but it's an accessible image everywhere. We had the mutual and considerable pleasure of two people speaking thoughtfully to each other. "You don't agree with any systems about it?" I asked, meaning the Book of Revelation. "I don't know. My church teaches a system." "Which one is that? Dispensationalism? Premillennialism?" "Yes." "The Rapture, any minute. The Jews left to face the anti-Christ." "Yes. Yes." "You're not defending it very hard," I suggested. His facial expression indicated that I had discerned his feelings accurately. "Is that what you believe?" Qi asked me. "No. I'm a Postmillennialist. I believe in the Great Commission. Christ gave us an order. Go into the far reaches of the world. Convert the nations. So we will succeed. It's the prayer he taught us. 'Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done.'" "How does reading about the burning lake of fire out loud, help that?" Qi queried. "I'm not sure. Does the Spirit have to explain everything to me? I respond as I'm called. But I think everybody wants good news. Ask them, and they'll tell you the world is a mess. But then they want good news - warm and reassuring. God's judgment in a burning lake of fire is a very unpopular topic. But it wakes people up. It made you ask me questions." "Do you think bad news is more likely to win converts?" Qi was looking at me with a certain amount of respectful skepticism. "I think telling people the truth helps people see the truth." "But you, too. You didn't recite the burning lake of fire verses with a big smile on your face." "Perhaps so. Me too," I admitted. "Maybe there's enough bad news already," Qi suggested. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. That's true too. You're right. But why are all those burning lake of fire verses there? Fierce warnings, aren't they?" I asked rhetorically. "Maybe it's the bad news that already exists. Maybe the world loves judging. Maybe the world needs judging. There's a lot of judging inside of us already." As he said this, I thought I detected some personal history in Qi – perhaps his father was a judgmental person. "I think it's a warning - a guide and a look to the future. But I'll be careful about trying to interpret it, with you around. I'll let the words be the words. Burning lake of fire and all." I raised my hands slightly to indicate surrender – the acknowledgment of my limitations. "Don't some people believe the whole book was just meant for the 1st century Christians? They think it all relates to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman armies. That's it – nothing else." Qi's knowledge suggested some study; his tone suggested questions, perhaps questions deeper than interpreting the Book of Revelation. "Are you a preterist?" I asked him. I wasn't sure whether his question was a narrow, specialized question over eschatology, or rather a deeper question that any young person might have, about whether the whole structure of religion is connected to anything real at all. "I'm not sure what that means," he admitted. "About what you said. Preterists believe most of the Book of Revelation has already been fulfilled. It was a warning for the 1st century, for the early church. A tract for the times. Now it's done – it has no future significance," I explained. "If that's what you're asking." "No, I haven't thought about it much, but don't think I think that. How about you?" Qi asked. There were questions in this young man, but I didn't know quite what they were. "I think it's prophecy. The Word of God to us. It's no more fulfilled and done than the Sermon on the Mount is fulfilled and done. Does that answer your question?" I returned. "I guess we'll never know, this side of Final Judgment," he offered. "Maybe we just wait for the Rapture?" "It makes a difference now. It changes how we act, because of what we expect. If all you're doing is sitting around here, waiting for the Rapture, that's one kind of answer. But I'll buy you a cup of coffee, and we can wait together." As I was about to get up to buy coffee, a young woman, talking to her friend following behind her, was trying to make her way behind the bench to a seat. She was holding a sandwich on a plate and a glass. Someone moved on the crowded bench, not knowing anyone was behind him, and bumped directly into her. Her sandwich spilled and tumbled across the back of an unshaven but pleasant-looking blonde young man and onto the floor. There, visible for the world, near Qi's feet, were the ingredients for her sandwich, two slices of multi-grain bread, two chunks of avocado, two generous slices of tomato, and a large stack of bean sprouts, scattered across the floor along with a slice of dill pickle. She moved back apologetically, waving the now-empty sandwich plate in her hand, obviously embarrassed. The young man stood up, rather mildly and saw who had spilled sandwich fixings on him. He didn't seem angry - he was apologetic and rather embarrassed himself. No one quite knew what to do. For a few moments the two of them milled about each other in rather disorganized fashion. The coffee house manager was nearby. She saw what had happened and signaled for a staff person to assist. Qi and I both stood up to move out of the way and sidestepped our way to leave the benches and table. As we were moving, I made brief eye contact with the manager and we mutually and quickly nodded. I didn't want her to think I had been a problem again, but she saw I was an innocent bystander, not an repeat instigator of disturbances. While the clean-up was being accomplished, Qi, seeing our mutual nod, asked if I knew the coffee house manager. "Yes, her name is Jen Geddes. She's a Christian. She's nice – a calm person." We watched the cleanup. I thought I would share a bit more, thinking still about what Qi's questions might be. "Years ago, she was in the newspaper, picture and all. She had a bit of a temper. I think she came from a very fundamental background. She was in a church, and for whatever reason, something was going with a visiting pastor she definitely didn't agree with. She expressed her theological disagreement by shouting out loud, picking up a stool, and heaving it at this visiting pastor. She actually hit him with it and there were disturbances in the church. The police had to be called. As a sentence I think she got what is called ARD, a non-trial diversion. It usually means she had to do some community service and get some counseling. I was practicing as a lawyer at the time, so I paid attention. Some years later, she got the job here. I recognized her when she started. Very calm - very welcoming to everybody these days. I never talked with her about it. I always wanted to ask her what it was about. Part of it was reported in the newspaper – apparently, whatever it was the visiting pastor was saying, her response was along the lines of "are you really going to say that, in my ear?" The cleanup was over, but Qi and I found a different place to sit and resumed our conversation. He wanted to know more about the type of law I had practiced, which was a general community practice. We started talking about the law and about the U.S. Constitution and some well-known constitutional principles, which were not, as Qi described, the rule or norm in China. He described a culture and circumstance in China which might be characterized as intense and ubiquitous favoritism. "We have those problems here - in a big way," I acknowledged. "You have laws about it, though. In China, there is no law to appeal to, to correct such things. The party is the law, and the party officials who operate without needing any approval." "We do have laws," I acknowledged. I narrated for Qi a United States Supreme Court case, which is a staple of the Constitutional Law curriculum in law school. "In San Francisco, around 1880, most of the laundry workers were Chinese. Laundries used heat in wooden buildings. There was a statute that said you couldn't operate a laundry without a permit. The statute itself wasn't crazy - there was a genuine fire risk with boiling water used in the laundries – not a joke in San Francisco. But Yick Wo had been operating his laundry for years, when he was told he couldn't operate his laundry anymore without a permit. Unfortunately, if you were Chinese, you didn't get a permit. If you weren't Chinese, then you got one. Yick Wo was fined for operating without the permit, and he couldn't or wouldn't pay the fine, so he was put in jail. The Supreme Court ruled that the administration of that permit law was unconstitutional – even if the laundry owners weren't citizens. Even if the law itself made sense considered in isolation. The Chinese laundry owners still had a right under equal protection, under the equal protection laws of the 14th Amendment." "You would not find such laws in China," Qi lamented. "Well, it took us years to take the legal principle serious," I told him. "Taking your principles seriously takes time." Our conversation continued. We talked about Chinese coolies and how they worked. We talked about Christianity in China. We talked about the beginning of the movie Crazy Rich Asians where they're having a Bible study. We talked about missionaries and Hudson Taylor and the Chinese Inland Mission, and when Qi's family had become Christians. We talked about wars in Asia – in the Pacific against Japan. Qi had a very distinct opinion about the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese in WWII, which flowed over to his opinion over disputed islands in the South China sea. We talked about the wars in Korea and Vietnam. We talked about Mao, and Communism and the treatment of Christians in China during the cultural revolution. Qi's family had suffered and practiced their faith in secret, but had emerged. We talked about the Three-Self Church in China. "Sanzi Jiaohui" Qi explained, trying to help me to pronounce it correctly. "But my family has spent so much time overseas, it was not critical to us. We didn't argue about religion, we argued about how many hours my father worked." He looked not as happy making this last statement. I decided to change gears altogether. "You'll be married someday. You'll have a wife and probably children. Do you have a girlfriend?" I asked. "Yes. But she is in graduate school in Michigan now. So I only get to see her on vacations. Sometimes we meet in Chicago. We are making some plans, but they have to wait. We text. She likes it, but she thinks it's cold there." We talked about the weather in China, and in the U.S. We moved our location one more time, when a booth opened up. Time passed, but the Rapture still lay in the future. In the meandering talk and silence of our time together, we made friends. The Holy Spirit, as known to coffee houses as He is to great cathedrals, entered somewhere. Eventually Qi said it was time for him to get back home, and we parted company with the idea that he would be back in the coffee house, and we would have a chance to talk again. Perhaps further, on the Book of Revelation, he suggested. ___________________ And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. Revelation 21:10. Those trained in theology and ministry should present the bulk of the inspired message of Rom. Ch. 12-15. But there is an element of those passages I want to address. I have a law degree, was valedictorian at law school, have practiced law for many years, and have held elected office. I serve as a volunteer on various boards with legal and executive authority over substantial matters. The business of law and government is something with which I am familiar. Although words like "law and government" don't sound San Francisco hippy-ish, don't seem to blend into a coffee-house or a road trip to the last chapters of Revelation, that is my direction now. Rom. 13:1-10 is my topic. Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. Rom13:1a. The passage is central. It does not stand for, nor should it be understood, to be a command to political authoritarianism. It is an invitation to law, to legitimacy, to ascertaining the will of the people in a democracy, enacting that will within the confines of a constitutional system, and then respecting the laws that flow therefrom. Within the world at large, we may be subject to, or may become the governing authorities – but we are always Christians. The Apostle Paul had multiple purposes in so writing – he had a concern with the relationship of Christians to the outside world and to the political authority of the Roman empire. Paul was also concerned about how Christians relate among ourselves. Christian religious/political conflict among ourselves has been a challenge for Christian theology. Theological disagreement may be the reason or the excuse for the ecclesiastical, political or social separation of Christians. Once reasons develop, theological disagreement, leading to differing communions and groupings, becomes the vehicle for separation. As the Reformation commenced and continued through the 16th and 17th centuries, it appeared the immovable object had met the irresistible force. When Christian conscience met Christian government in vehement disagreement, the results were tragically unacceptable in individual cases. Theologically, the issues have never been resolved. One person wishes to pray to the saints, another does not, one expects an early Rapture with no warning, another does not, one thinks the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, another does not. There are innumerable such differences. The continuing disagreements demonstrate that we have no recognized method of either resolving the dispute, or even a recognized method of staying in communication with each other. The argument continues unresolved. The fallback position for various Christian disputants is spiritual distance and intentional distancing, and attrition over time. Politically, we have addressed the most negative consequences of those 16th and 17th century conflicts by privatizing religious conscience. The results of privatizing Christian conscience are only partially satisfactory, as the 21st century is demonstrating. Organizing a better society is problematic, if each Christian has no greater loyalty than to his or her conscience. Conscience slides into self-will. Beyond denominational or theological boundaries, no one is able to present, to debate, to respond, to adjudicate, to give, or to obey an order issued by a recognized body of Christians, on any issue – not just very large important issues. All issues are 'off the table,' as it were, beyond joint resolution. No one could today post 95 theses on the door of a church and have an audience. We are stalled on Christian conscience-autonomy. No one says 'my conscience is God' but that is the net result. Each spider sits on her own web. The Old Testament analogue is the Book of Judges. The civil and political theory and authority that God has established pertinent to us, and to all, has been two thousand years in the making. The development of this theory is an argument for and an example of common grace, extended by God to all, who makes his sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. "All peaceful beginnings of government have been laid in the consent of the people," John Locke, the British philosopher wrote in his Second Treatise on Government, Sect. 112. His work was instrumental in the framing of American constitutional ideas. Within the United States, we are both the governed, and the governing authorities. Perhaps odd, perhaps obvious to say, but if we as Christians want to reach the heavenly city of God, we have to be capable of governing and being governed by each other. This does not suggest extinguishing the ordinary and necessary debate and contentions that accompany civil and religious life. But at some point, a methodology of decision-making has to be established. Decisions are to be made, and they have to be respected. These 'decisions' are Christian decisions, critical to the communications and communal life of all Christians. That is not intended as a challenge to fundamental theological positions. When our government formed, Maryland did not become Pennsylvania – each state assigned certain powers to a federal government, and retained the rest. Lawful is not lawless, even where there is hard questioning and debate over what is really or ought to be 'lawful.' There are many different ways to connect with each other in the exercise of our Christian faith. Our movement toward the Jerusalem from above is obstructed, if we are situated like a collection of hermit crabs, each communion barricaded in its own shell of theological position, ecclesiastical organization and personal conscience. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Rom. 13:1 b. God created and enables all things, in providing the motive power for all events, outside of whose permissive will nothing ever can happen or could happen. Such establishment includes "the authorities that exist." As Jesus said to Pilate, "You would have no power over me if it were not given you from above." God is the source of lawful authority. The present state of world and national affairs, including our legal and political structures, is not accidental. It may be temporary, or cause us to pray "How long, O Lord, will the wicked by jubilant?" But if we cannot obey our own lawful authority, exercising decisions derived from faith, there is no possibility of building a genuinely lawful structure. If we cannot debate our Christian statements, decrees, findings or laws, enable and enact our Christian decrees, respect or obey our Christian laws, because they come from the authority already announced and ordained by our God and Savior, we're not going to move. We are stranded in the valley of stasis. I am postmillennial, a believer in the Kingdom of God that comes into this world. The extension of Rom. 13:1 b is necessary. This verse sends us forward, makes us look to the future. The current set of authorities have been established by God. The next set of authorities will be established by God - and the next set, after that. We want this set of authorities, each set of authorities, to be better, more Christ-like. When we say more 'Christ-like,' it is not reasonable to expect that denominational and theological differences are going to evaporate. We want to be Christ-like as we assume, or obey, or exchange, this developing authority which expresses itself in constitutional forms among us - not because it results in theocracy or theonomy (or any other system of being ruled by the laws of the Old Testament). Rather, we remember that the "authorities that exist" may be us, or may not be; and if we're not holding office at the moment, we may retain our theological positions or political differences. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, has special significance when we are talking about different groups of Christians contending over beliefs, ideas, or courses of conduct which may be supported and advanced by force of decree, statement or law. If we are going to move toward a more complete Christian community, theological convictions count, inspiration counts, but also, impartiality counts. We want the debate (and the penalties for losing the debate on whatever topic is at hand) to be just and impartial. The rules, the conduct, the doctrine, whatsoever it is under discussion, and the statement or law that issues from them, or us, are to be impartial. The means and procedure of discussing, debating, challenging or appealing the decision regarding the resolution of Christian issues, have to be impartial. Due Process is a legal term but it paves a spiritual road. It means notice of the issue at hand, before the time and place of decision, and the opportunity to be heard on the point by the decision-makers. We hope valued impartiality flows into our political and national lives. But whether it does or does not flow nationally, we have to communicate these exchanges and accord this due process among ourselves in an impartial manner – and then voluntarily respect the outcome. The amorality of the present state of our national political life is not ultimately acceptable, but neither it is acceptable to go back to the political situation, rife with religious persecutions, that characterized Great Britain (and here in New England) in the 17th century. We do not criminalize people with whom we disagree. We will not move toward a golden, millennial age until we capture solutions to both sets of problems – spiritual unity which enables voluntary association and cooperation, and spiritual dissent. Our risen Lord Jesus has set us a mid-term examination. God has graciously provided us guidance. As explained by Locke in his Second Treatise, sect. 131: And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees; by indifferent [impartial] and upright judges, who are to decide controversies by those law; and to employ the force of the community at home, only in the execution of such laws; or abroad to prevent or redress foreign injuries, and secure the community from inroads and invasion. And all this to be directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. The peace that Jesus confers - "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27), connects to this Lockean peace, safety and the public good. The kingdom of God ("Thy kingdom come," Jesus taught us to pray, Mat. 6:10, "on earth as it is in heaven.") and "the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations," Rev. 22:2, converge on this peace. They are intended for this-world Christian implementation, and this implementation and obedience to God's will is not beyond us. John Locke described the "peace, safety and public good of the people" in terms that were attainable. He presented his solution at the time of intense religious persecution that frequently was the excuse, rather than the reason, for political persecution. The experience of the Amish community in self-regulation provides some useful guidance. The Nashville Statement, signed initially by more than 150 evangelical leaders, affirming what is set forth or implied in Scripture about sexuality, particularly Romans ch. 1, is a productive step toward our self-regulation and our movement toward a Holy City. The Nashville Statement engendered disagreement and resentment. Nor do I endorse all views, on all issues, of those Christians who developed the Nashville Statement. The point is to cooperate as actively and as far as we can, but no further. Theological statements and decisions are presented to address conflicting positions. The resentment within large elements of our national society, of the Christian position on the sexual issues addressed in the Nashville Statement, is intense – but that is acceptable. Disregard of God's Word engenders its own consequences. We want to be frog-marched off the Titanic of modern secular culture and nominal Christianity - thrown unceremoniously into a little lifeboat named Jesus and the Bible. We expect to be marginalized with the world's imprecations following, as the Titanic leaves us behind. We may bob in the ocean of broad societal disapproval for a short season. It's not hard to see the iceberg coming. After the iceberg has done its work, we, the Christian community, build a better world. We may communicate our own internal understandings and direction without surrendering those theological positions which are essentially non-negotiable. John Locke calls out the following elements in the above-recited passage: legislative power, established law, impartial judges, a judicious use of 'force' to execute such laws, directed to peace, safety and public good – and we would add, for the community of our faith. The challenge is to connect that political peace, of which we are clearly capable, with Jesus' spiritual peace. The alternative, the Valley of Christian Stasis, is incapable of being characterized as good faith. That is not how the Book of Revelation ends. To disconnect the two kinds of peace, to say that the peace that Jesus provides is always and forever not of this world, is to take a position on eschatology. That is to take the position that the Kingdom of God is not coming (despite praying "thy Kingdom come") in this world except by the visible return of Christ but in no other way. It is to take the position that the Great Commission does not fully succeed (apparently, then, a command to partial failure?). It is to take the position that the ending of Romans ch. 16 ("so that all nations might believe and obey him") doesn't count. If the Kingdom of God is coming in this world, then those good ends that John Locke asserted - peace, safety, the public good - have to be realized in the context of a multitude of Christian expressions (the 'Seven Churches' of Revelation), giving rise to our City in Motion. The political events of the last two thousand years include what has politically taken place in this country in the last 250 years. We may begin with the Deist-influenced proclamation of the Declaration of Independence (which, despite its Deist influences, repeatedly and insistently invokes God, the Creator, the Supreme Judge, and Divine Providence), which is also directly of God. The Declaration of Independence, like all other expressions of common grace, is directed by and under the authority of our risen Lord, Jesus. Pilate's authority derived from Roman military and civil power gets the benefit of God's imprimatur, as spoken by Jesus. Then surely also so does the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. We have political tools. We need to use them. We don't want to supplant the state, we want to create a miniature of a Constitutional and legislative system, for ourselves, entered into by three gates: by Christian faith, by subscription to the doctrine of Scriptural inerrancy, and by a commitment to a forward-looking eschatology. Beyond that, once through those gates 'of the outer courtyard,' we acknowledge a diversity of views, a gathering of seven churches, a lively exchange of ideas. We will make and find our city and move toward peace, joy, and the enjoyment of the presence of God, characterized by our love for God, and our love for each other. There, we will be in a position to lead useful and interesting lives and have enjoyable and interesting discourse. We do not resurrect the past, look to the past, long for the days of ancient Israel, look for theocratical forms of government, or long for the days when our particular theology will be adopted by everyone. Christianity is just beginning. "By calling this covenant new, he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and aging will soon disappear." Heb. 8:13. The orchestra is just tuning up - we're barely getting started. I have no use at all for nostalgia. To quote a modern theologian, Greg Bahnsen: Postmillennialists believe, therefore, that the kingdom of God will gradually grow on earth, visibly, publicly, and externally. . . It will grow through the gradual conversion of the nations – through the preaching of the Word of God. . . . This salvation of many people must have visible expression and influence and be seen in an outward culture in society. (Victory in Jesus, Bahnsen, CMP 1999, p. 27). (See also, Postmillennialism, an Eschatology of Hope, Keith A. Mattison, P&R Publishing, 1999; The Victory of Christ's Kingdom, John Jefferson Davis, Canon Press, 1996; Prophecy and the Church, Oswald Allis, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1978 (critique of dispensationalism); He Shall Have Dominion, Kenneth Gentry, Apologetics Group Media, 2009 (thorough defense of postmillennialism); and An Eschatology of Victory, J. Marcellus Kik, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1971) ("the Holy City is situated in time and history . . . " p. 245). (Noting also with all these authors, that their theology is learned, their eschatology is inspiring, their legal and political theory needs better direction.) Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves." Rom:13:2. Paul instructed Christians in the Roman Empire, where we began as a tiny minority. Stay out of trouble, direct your energy away from rebellion, stay away from political revolt or disobedience. Move in our spiritual life and the witness to the growing faith. Paul was concerned about building the church locally and across geographical distances and cultural groups. It was the Holy Spirit saying, "it's okay to obey the Roman authorities – in fact, you should, this is part of your obedience to me, unless (as is clear from the Book of Revelation), you are being asked to deny Christ or otherwise blaspheme." Christ warned his disciples to stay clear of the military and political disaster coming because of the Jewish rebellion brewing against Roman authority in his pointed discourse at the Mount of Olives. In whatever direction we decide to move, it must meet the fundamental standards enunciated by Paul. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment, but also because of conscience. That is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe him; if you owe taxes, pay taxes, if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Rom. 13:3-7. Christian, don't do the crime, if you can't do the time. The bearing of the sword is intended for punishment. The state has a monopoly on the use of force, for a good reason. Generally, Christian conscience acts in conjunction with the state (but not always, see, e.g., Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail). In his Letter to the Romans, Paul meant a number of different things by 'the Law,' understood by context: the Ten Commandments, the Law of Moses implying a special revelation of God's will to the Jews, natural law available to and applicable to all people, spiritual law to be followed by Christians out of obedience to the gospel, the law of love, Roman civil or criminal law to be obeyed at the risk of punishment, the law of conscience, including accusations or defenses of conscience, the law of interior struggle with sin, sin and death itself, and the new life of the Spirit - all are referenced in Paul's letter, all characterized in his writing as or associated with the Law. The Law shows us our sins by holding up a mirror to our conduct in the light of God's Law, sending us to call on Christ's atoning mercy. The Law protects the weak from wrongdoing at the hands of those stronger and is essential to a civil society. The Law in all its forms and expressions is surely the great chain, wielded by an angel, which binds Satan in Rev. 20:1 and 2. As the Holy City comes down out of heaven as described in the 21st Chapter of Revelation, it is not described as the City of Law. By implication, the City may be protected by Law. Law may reinforce its walls and its gate. Spiritual law may flow from and through the Church to separate those who may enter the City of God from those who may not. But the Holy City's light, foundations, jewels, gates, streets, river, fountains, or its Tree of Life are not described in terms of Law. In the Sacred City of divine and human joy, where Christ reigns by acclamation, by love and by power, the purposes of the Law have been fulfilled. Lawlessness has no place in the City as it can never enter in. The Abyss may be escaped, only to give rise to further battle and fire, but the Holy City is prepared as a bride. The description of the Millennial City calls us to something higher, further and more perfect than Law as a goal and end of human society. The Law has a purpose and an end, and it reaches fulfillment in Christ's work on the Cross. In a more perfect society, where equity is done everywhere, there is no need to petition a court of equity for relief. Where love and trust are more perfect among people, no judge is needed to assert jurisdiction, hear argument or rule for one party or the other. In a meeting with our beloved, we who love fold our papers, close our law books and put our contracts aside. Their purpose has been served. Love keeps no record of wrong, so we may leave the courtroom. We go to meet for a wedding ceremony and a feast. The beauty of the meeting calls us to travel the road. Questions arise about doing right, what obedience means, in a Constitutional democracy where we are asked to play a part. The part we play nationally, whatever it is, to which we are also called and from which we refuse to be disenfranchised, is not the same as the spiritual movement we pursue among ourselves. We are called to something higher than the surrounding political confrontation and factionalism (not an easy problem to solve; see Federalist No. 10 – Madison thought the danger of factionalism would be solved by the new Constitution, and clearly that has not been the case). John Locke thought the solution was self-evident. "[F]or nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another. . . Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make . . . must be conformable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God . . ." 2nd Treatise, sect. 135. To say something must be conformable to the will of God, or the law of nature or an eternal rule, has proved to be guidance not so obvious, beyond the first application, of not destroying life. Many Christians are united on this point at least. Given the number of abortions being performed annually in the United States and western world generally, even Locke's standard of 'not taking away life' appears to have given way to a notion of personal rights that is practically unlimited in its scope or application. In the case of abortion on demand, the notion is tragic on a massive scale, leads to infanticide (and the purposeful abortion of Downs' syndrome babies), is contrary to God's will, is destructive of our national political fabric, and presents an irresistible temptation to federal courts to exceed their Constitutional jurisdiction and intended scope of authority. Next to the Dred Scott decision, Roe v. Wade is the worst decision ever made by the U.S. Supreme Court, and its consequences have been destructive. The decision raises political problems regardless of religious faith – there is no serious legal question of any type that cannot be formulated into a query about individual rights and then answered in such a way as to make individual rights (defined to assure the preferred outcome) preempt and supersede any other type of right. In the case of abortion, all that is necessary is to deny the definition of human life to children in the womb. The definitions decide the outcome. When we now use the term 'civil rights' the meaning is – rights of the individual. In current judicial reasoning, advancing individual rights is always expansive of the good, as long as the individuals are out of the womb. In current judicial reasoning, the rights of the group are nearly always oppressive, subtracting from the net benefit of civil society. My civil rights cannot be added to the civil rights of my fellow citizens, in such a way as to develop a society promoting religiously-based ethical views. One hundred thousand people may not be lead in prayer at a government-sponsored or funded event, if one objects. If it is necessary to justify protecting children in the womb from destruction by making a religious argument, because the definition of the beginning of life implies theological and ethical reasoning, then the destructive consequences of advancing individual rights above other rights are wrongly justified as compelled by the implied language of the Constitution. An intellectual shell game has been played by our federal judiciary, of which Roe v. Wade is the most notorious example – get the definitions right, set up the conflict as the individual vs. the group (included in 'the group' is any assembly of state legislators) – and the desired judicial result will pop out like candy from a dispenser. From this Christian's viewpoint, and I am also a citizen of this nation, this is unacceptable. As an individual, my name is not "Congress," as in the 1st Amendment ("Congress shall make no law"). The idea that ethical decisions, which result in law, may not have religious foundations, is to be rejected. The idea that I may not join with others to vote for or to pass laws which at some point in their chain of reasoning, rely on religious belief or revelation, is to be rejected. A method of judicial reasoning which relies on carefully-crafted initial definitions and nomenclature to avoid the obvious, observable acts of medically terminating life, with the resulting infant body parts available for marketing, is to be rejected. Political acts which have ethical foundations, which themselves have religious foundations, are ordinary acts of Constitutional self-rule, not the establishment of a theocracy. We will do better, because God will compel a better result. The City of God is a promise to seven churches, standing for a society of communities engaged in the voluntary worship of God and obedience to Christ. Discovering the will of God, in our own relations with other Christians, raises harder questions than challenging bad national law or opposing abortion on demand. Discovering God's will mean moving forward to our own better self-governing society, even if we construct a model first on a 'table-top,' as it were. I quote a passage from Locke which will have a familiar sound to any reader familiar with the Declaration of Independence: Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected . . . 2nd Treatise, sect. 225. Locke observed that the people may "rouse themselves." Indeed, 'rousing ourselves' is essential. But in what way did the Apostle Paul view 'rousing ourselves?' The difficulty with Paul's passage in Romans ch. 13:3-7, is its static nature. Those admonitions made sense then, for a small religious minority in a vast pagan empire. The Roman authorities were there, and the Roman Christians submitted to them, and were grateful to God for the opportunity to worship him in peace. There was no political development implied; it was intentional separation from Roman interference, by giving no cause for offence, for purposes of Christian religious practice. A difficulty with the passage of Locke cited above is that it takes the matter one, but only one, drastic step forward. If the authorities are inflicting a "long train of abuses . . . all tending the same way" then the people ought to put "the rule into such hands as may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected." Locke's concepts are binary, but they also will become static – either the people accept the "great mistakes and wrong laws without mutiny or murmer" – or, as the American people did in 177 6, they "rouse themselves" to "put the rule into such hands, etc.," in other words, to put governmental rule into American hands in the legislatures of the American states. Continuing, aspirational movement was not contemplated by John Locke either. The wasn't the problem he was facing 320 years ago, but it is a problem we are facing now. There is much the Book of Revelation does not do. There is one thing it does do, beyond its powerful encouragement in the face of persecution – it says, 'look, there's a goal here, a destination, and we want to get to it.' The Book has an end, and the end is a City. The Great Commission is equally dynamic – Jesus telling us "Go, make disciples." There's a goal here, a command, something we are supposed to be doing – and disciples, discipling and discipline has to extend to more than personal conscience, to the exclusion of Christian community. The argument against amillennialism is parallel to the argument against premillennialism (whether in its dispensational presentation or classical presentation) – those doctrines don't go anywhere. When it comes to Revelation ch. 21 and 22, these doctrines 'sit on their hands.' Rather, our doctrine of eschatology is postmillennial (Christ comes after ("post") the millennium) by our voluntary choice, by Revelation's destination, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit to reach a millennium in this world. Jesus is awaited at the end of the golden, millennial period, however long and wonderful that period may be, a thousand years or a ten times a thousand years – and we have acted in obedience to him in making or moving to such a society and such a world. (For the Kingdom of God will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property - one to receive five talents, one to receive two, another, to receive one). Our goal is forward. Neither John Lock or the Apostle Paul, or Jesus, say: "let's go back to an Old Testament theocracy as soon as we have a chance." Hence, my profound disagreement with all forms of political theocracy, theonomy, etc. We move to the future here, in terms of our political understanding – our Lord Jesus has not been asleep for the last 2000 years. For that matter, if you need open-heart CABG surgery as I did, you will not seek out a doctor who applies the methods of healthcare available in the days of Moses – there are no instructions in the Old Testament for a triple-bypass procedure. Common grace has done something with respect to medical care, as it has done something with respect to political theory which the churches may apply. After the passage quoted above about obeying the authorities, the Apostle Paul moved directly, with no further transition, to a society characterized by love that has already internalized the Law. The movement is sudden between Rom. 13:7, extolling obedience to external Roman authority, sharing neither political power or a faith with us, to Rom. 13:8. Here is our endpoint: Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, "Do not commit adultery," Do not murder," "Do not steal," "Do not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. If we wish to go On the Road now (and we find ourselves On the Road whether we wish it or not) – static conceptions will not do. We construct with the law in the manner of a homebuilder, using our tools to lay on progressively wiser and more effective structural elements, until we reach the fulfillment of home-building, a home where we may love. That is the postmillennial vision – a millennial world, a golden age of faith, love and peace, before Christ returns. The thousand years of the millennium in Ch. 20 is both a reality and a symbol for that vision. The reality of God's ordaining will is a driving movement. Growth through the Holy Spirit is neither limited to or circumscribed by the symbol of a thousand year time period. We travel to an end and a society good beyond words. Our driving force and our destination comes from God. Golden ages are hard to come by, but not only can we get there, we will. Christ has called us to this, and his sobriety and his power in doing so is beyond question. ____________________________________
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Arik Yavilevich's blog | "Code IT", my thoughts on technology. With the release of Android 8.0 ("Oreo"), I as well as others have noticed that they cannot find some HM-10 clone BLE modules when scanning for them with an Android 8.0 (or newer) phone. Why is that happening and what can you do about it? tl;dr, the issue is due to a bug in the firmware of those modules, typically referred to as CC41 firmware. Fixing these modules is too much of a hassle and you would probably be better off getting a new module for communicating with Android 8.0 and perhaps use the problematic ones for iOS and pre Android 8.0 devices only. I have several projects which involve BLE, most noticeably Fochica, a system that alerts parents if they have unintentionally left their children in a vehicle. As a result I have been dealing with all sort of BLE modules in the last couple of years. Many of these modules are in a category called "HM-10 clones". I have written an Arduino sketch, arduino-ble-ident-n-set, to help identify the specific module type and to help configure it easily. Typically listed or sold as just "HM-10" these modules are a group of modules that share a form factor, pin layout and a micro-controller (the TI CC2541). While trying to mimic the original HM-10 by "Jinan Huamao technology Co" they differ by firmware, breakout board and daughter board. When ordering online it is very difficult to know which exact combination you will get. Only the original HM-10 modules have some kind of support, while other variations are mostly made by anonymous clone manufactures. I personally have dozens of modules with 6 different unique combinations, including 2 variants of CC41, 2 variants of MLT-BT05, an original HM-10 and a botched CC41 that I will describe in more detail later in the article. The bug When these modules fail, it could be due to an issue in the daughter board, the breakout board or in the firmware. This case is due to a bug in the CC41 firmware. When a BLE device receives a scan request it responds with a scan response. The response includes information about the device such as device name, services offered, etc. The length of the response depends on the amount of bytes in the response fields. The CC41 firmware always sends a response with length of 31 bytes. It basically performs a "read beyond bound" from the variable that stores the scan response. The first part of the 31 bytes is a valid scan response and the second part is some padding containing either uninitialized memory or data of the next variable in memory. iOS and pre Android 8.0 systems ignored this corrupt data but starting with Android 8.0 Google decided to perform stricter validation of this data. This was probably done to prevent potential security issues, crashes and to follow the standard more closely. The malformed response is ignored and the resulting behavior is as if the CC41 is not responding at all. I was able to reproduce and observe this behavior with the following BLE sniffing setup: TI SmartRF Protocol Packet Sniffer software - CC2540 USB device - - I got mine from eBay, probably a clone. SmartRF Flash Programmer software - TI SmartRF04EB programmer device - - I got mine from eBay, probably a clone. For a more DIY approach, there are articles showing how you can use an Arduino as a TI programmer. The steps are: Install the right software versions for your matching devices. Install a driver for the programmer. Program the "CC2540 USB" device with "Texas Instruments\\SmartRF Tools\\Packet Sniffer\\bin\\general\\firmware\\sniffer_fw_cc2540_usb.hex" firmware. Connect the CC2540 USB to your computer and run the packet sniffer software. I found the following guide from TI useful. We can now observe BLE traffic. Setting a filter on scan responses will make it easier to see the bug. Here are some responses from different BLE devices: CC41: 0D 09 46 6F 63 68 69 63 61 5F 33 31 41 44 00 00 81 00 10 00 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF ESP32: 02 01 06 0F 09 45 53 50 5F 47 41 54 54 53 5F 44 45 4D 4F 02 0A EB 05 03 EE 00 FF 00 HM-10: 07 09 48 4D 53 6F 66 74 MLT-BT05-V4.0: 09 09 4D 4C 54 2D 42 54 30 35 Local name, Field type, Length, Junk. I have color-coded the various parts to easily convey the issue in the response. For exact protocol details see the specifications. Few observations: A spontaneous idea might be to change the name of the CC41 device to something longer such that we have a valid response or at least a zero-padded one. However, the CC41 firmware doesn't allow to set a name longer than 18 characters. Most modules send only their name in response to a scan, while the ESP32 device in this example was programmed to send 3 other fields as well. Solutions It is unlikely that Android's new behavior will change so the typical resolution would be to update the firmware of the device to a bug free version. Unfortunately Bolutek, who seem to be the company behind the CC41, doesn't provide updated CC41 firmware or any easy way to upload the firmware to the device. We are left with the following options: Use another module Painful process to flash a different working available firmware Trying to hack the device Use another module This is probably the easiest option in terms of invested time. HM-10 clone modules are sold at $2 a piece so if you need to replace just a few it might be easier to order another HM-10 (clone) module. New modules will most likely come with a different firmware such as a MLT-BT05 variant, or even better an original HM-10 which has means for over-the-serial flash updates. If you still get a CC41 module nowadays I feel it is a valid reason to ask for a refund. Personally I am a bit tired of dealing with issues of the HM-10 ecosystem. You never know what you will get as the variability is so high. Most modules have an anonymous entity behind them and no way to get updates. The original model lost its value as a unique identifier of a specific model and became a generic identifier. Pairing/bonding is poorly implemented in the clones compared to alternatives. Due to these reasons and more you too might want to stay away from HM-10 all together. Nowadays I prefer using an ESP32 instead of an Arduino + HM-10 combination. The main reasons are: It is a bit more complex but you have full control of the firmware, you can define your own services/characteristics and use this for more than just wireless UART. There is a company behind the device and you don't need to do any wiring as the BLE (+BT+WiFi) is built into to the micro-controller. The ESP32 is a much more powerful chip than a typical Uno/Nano but still can be programmed the same way from an Arduino IDE. The ESP32 now has a decent BLE library. The big difference between the two approaches is that with the ESP32 you don't have a separate firmware for the external module, instead the code of the BLE is compiled together with the code of your program. When you upload your code you upload both your program and any BLE related code/libraries. Re-flashing to another firmware Those looking to "fix" their CC41 flashed modules can flash them with a different firmware. The only other firmware I am aware of that is available in a file that can be flashed is the HM-10 original firmware. Any modules with other firmware that I have tested always came "chip locked" so you can't read the firmware from the module. I guess the HM-10 firmware once leaked or was distributed without a "chip lock", which resulted in its availability. If you are aware of another firmware that exists for this purpose, please mention that in the comments. There are advantages and disadvantages to flashing the HM-10 original firmware to a clone device. Advantages: Pairing/bonding works better and with more phones models and OS versions Ability to do over-the-serial updates Works with Android 8.0 Works better as a beacon (iBeacon) Less bugs in general Disadvantages You will need to cut the shrink warp of your module You will need to do some soldering You will probably need to buy/build some tools (clips, programmer, etc) You might have to fix issues and apply workarounds to make the STATE pin work as expected PSA: The jnhuamao.cn site contained downloads with trojans and was classified as a malicious site on several instances so if you are downloading executables from there you have a chance of getting infected. You can do the process without going there which is what I would recommend, otherwise be careful. The instructions below are not going to be a complete tutorial for re-flashing the CC41, for detailed instructions, firmware files and discussion see the following resources: JDY-08 : bluetooth 4.0 module How to flash genuine HM-10 firmware on CC2541 (make genuine HM-10 from CC41) - Video I used the following tools to re-flash the module: SmartRF Flash Programmer software - TI SmartRF04EB programmer device - - I got mine from eBay, probably a clone. See CCLoader for a DIY approach. DIP16 programming clip/clamp - an option to consider instead of soldering wires to the module The steps I took for flashing Cutting the transparent shrink wrap that protects the module. You should consider taping it back when you are done flashing. Identifying the pins needed for programming: debug clock, debug data, reset, power 3.3V and ground. Adding solder to the pins/pads where connection are to be made. Bending the connectors of the DIP16 clip so they align to the pads of the castellated daughter board. They are not the same pitch by default. Running the SmartRF programmer software and setting the settings for writing the desired firmware. Connecting Gnd to the 2.54mm module pin and the other programmer connections via the clip. Connecting the programmer to the USB. Performing the program. Verifying the result through a BLE app and a serial connection. This worked surprisingly well. The difficult part was holding the clip in place steady for a good connection to the pads. If the connection is not good, then the device would not be detected in the programmer when it is plugged in. Fixing the STATE pin All works well with the new firmware except for the STATE pin. In the clones this pin is supposed to be HIGH when the module is connected and LOW when the module is disconnected. To accomplish that the clones use pin P1_1 (PIO2) which is connected directly to STATE while also having a separate pin P1_2 (PIO1) to drive the on board LED. The default behavior for the LED is to blink when the module is not connected and HIGH when the module is connected. In the original module, P1_1 is not used and is configured as OUTPUT LOW. Instead P1_2 is used for both the STATE and the LED. This means that by default the STATE will blink when the module is not connected, which is a weird behavior for a digital output signal. To compensate for that, the original HM-10 allows to reconfigure the behavior of P1_2 (PIO1) through AT commands to have it as LOW when the device is not connected. This is one aspect where I believe the clones are actually better than the original. It makes much more sense to have separate digital signal and visual LED indicator pins as each has its own expected logic. If, like me, you rely on the proper operation of the STATE pin for your application logic, then you will have to make another alteration to the module to reconnect the STATE pin to P1_2 instead of P1_1. Note that it is not enough to bridge the two, you have to actually cut the previous connection, otherwise there will be a short circuit between P1_2 and P1_1. Identify the trace that connects between STATE and pin P1_1 and cut it using a hobby knife. Verify that there is no conductivity. Then solder a bridge between STATE and the P1_2 pin or the LED or the LED resistor (depending on what is convenient on your breakout board). Verify that the two pins are not connected and that STATE is now properly connected to pin P1_2. Using AT commands or arduino-ble-ident-n-set configure the module to drive the LED in a boolean fashion. You should now have a proper STATE pin. Note, some HM-10 clone modules come with no solder bridge between pin P1_1 and the matching pad on the breakout board. If you intend to re-flash those, this can actually be an advantage. Don't fix this connection, re-flash the module and then bridge the two pads on the breakout board without bridging the matching pads on the daughter board. This should connect STATE to P1_2 while leaving P1_1 disconnected. Here you can see a CC41 module which was previously fixed to support STATE, now re-worked to support STATE in a HM-10 configuration: Creative solutions Perhaps there are additional ways to hack the CC41 module. I am really interested to know if you have any ideas. We know that there is at least one bug in the firmware and perhaps there are others, which can allow us to take control of the device, alter its behavior or dump its firmware. Perhaps somebody has an updated firmware or an original extracted firmware that can be patched... Conclusion It is possible to fix misbehaving modules by re-flashing them, but it is not a quick or easy process. Might be better to get new HM-10 modules or switch to alternatives. It would be nice to have more options. The importance of software updates is demonstrated once again. For the benefit of the community and other buyers, you are encouraged to leave reviews for any modules you get from eBay/aliexpress and describe their parameters such as type, version, STATE pin implementation, etc. This is the only way we can beat the huge fragmentation in the market and educate the sellers about the items they sell.
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